Young people and the labour market: a review
Youth unemployment is at present a crucial issue in the EU policy agenda, as well as in the agenda of other developed and developing countries. The economic crisis, which began in mid-2008, has had severe effects on EU and Eastern Europe labour markets and especially on young people. The key aim of this introductive chapter is to review and present the contributions included in the book, that is the upshot of the EU IRSES project “The political economy of youth unemployment”. It also summarizes the most relevant articles already published by the authors involved in the EU project.
In this paper the public-private wage gap is estimated by means both of the OLS and the quantile regression, which will provide a more complex picture of the distribution of the public-private sector wage gap. The author finds the existence of significant public-private wage gap (about 30%) considering both observable and unobservable characteristics of workers and jobs. Using the decomposition based on quantile regression helps to answer the question about the nature of the wage differences. The author comes to the conclusion that the main reason for the gap is the institutional mechanisms of public sector wages in Russia. The analysis is based on the data from Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) 2000-2010.
Export is not the only driver of growth that helped German economy to revive fast after the Great Recession 2008-09. As important was the package of reforms Agenda 2010 aimed at liberalization of labour market. It made employment relations more flexible inter alia by deregulation of non-standard employment. Atypical forms of employment facilitate labour market entry for recruits and long-term unemployed, they increase the scope of flexibility for both employees and business and help employers to satisfy the fluctuating labour demand. The spread of atypical employment relationship strongly contributed to German employment boom, so called “Jobwunder”, and currently Germany shows a record level of employment and quite low unemployment rate. At the same time atypical employment may cause an increase in various social risks, low-wage jobs explosion and precarisation. Still, it would be misleading to identify precarious work and non-standard employment because of the heterogeneity of the latter.
This paper gives an overview of specific features of the atypical employment in Germany, deals with its development dynamics and evaluates negative and positive effects on labour market.
Business Studies practice listening tasks which are based on authentic sources, specially designed for the English state exam of the 4th year Public Administration students.
ABSTRACT Employability of students is becoming one of the key measurements of education quality today. In the time of the transforming relationship between higher education and labour market the new kind of mentality, certain type of knowledge and skills are necessary to adjust to change and stay afloat. This paper examines the way students perceive and manage their employability, preparing for the transition from the higher education into the labour market. It is based on the study of 139 undergraduates of the National Research University - Higher School of Economics, Russia. The participants answered a questionnaire about their oncoming employability – how they approach and construct it, and what role they attribute to the higher educational setting in fostering it. So, the questions were categorised into three blocks: • labour market orientations; • labour market strategies; • evaluation of educational outcomes. The study revealed students’ general optimism and belief in their strengths. At the same time entrance into the labour market is viewed as a challenge. Hence, students appear to use strategic behaviour to increase the number of their “selling points”. Despite the respondents' positive thinking about the future on the labour market, they are less confident about the probability to find the job they like. Moreover, receiving employment overseas rather than on the domestic job market is preferred by a considerable number of the respondents. Besides, some employability qualities of the participants were found to be underdeveloped inside academia. Thus, educational and social policy should pay closer attention to employability enhancement and providing guarantees for graduate employment.
Job plays one of the most important roles in every day life. It is even more important to have stable job with regular payment. Many developed and developing countries have been watching a constant decline of stable jobs during the last 20 years.
The first reasons for job stability growth/decline are economic changes and institutional background. Both Russia and East Germany experienced transformational processes to the market economy in the beginning of 1990s; great work reallocation has been a key concern for both countries throughout the early 90s as well as new setting of the institutional background. The two countries had much in common before the reforms started: they both were planned economies with almost 100% employment, stable work places and rigid mobility. Nevertheless each of them went its own way through all the changes.