About inertia of measurement devices
There is considerable international activity in the development of numerical models for the purpose of climate simulation and for forecasting on various timescales. This publication is an attempt to foster an early interchange of information among workers in these areas. The material in the publication is the response to a "call for contributions" sent to scientists worldwide. Contributions obtained in response to this call are included if they are related to the CAS/JSC numerical experimentation programme, if they give new results, and if they are of suitable length and size. Reports that do not meet these criteria, have been previously published, or are purely theoretical may be rejected. The most appropriate reports give results of new numerical experiments in the form of a succinct explanation accompanied by suitable tables and figures. The contributions are collected into subject groupings as appropriate. The range of subjects is expected to vary with time and depends on the submissions received. The large number of contributions from around the world indicates the wide scope of activities in numerical experimentation, and the valuable addition that this type of report makes to the refereed journals. Comments and suggestions for improvement to the publication are welcomed. To facilitate location of specific contributions, they are ordered alphabetically by author in the various subject areas. The publication is web-based and accessible at the WGNE web site at http://bluebook.meteoinfo.ru. Note that since the beginning of 2018 the old link https://www.wcrpclimate.org/WGNE/blue_book.html does not work anymore. For many years the WGNE Blue Book was prepared and edited at the Environment Canada. This multi-year initiative is highly appreciated. Now the Hydrometcentre of Russia has taken the lead on the activity. In 2016-2017, the contributions to the WGNE Blue Book were submitted through the web site of the Hydrometcenter of Russia. Recently a new web site of the Working group of numerical experimentation http://wgne.meteoinfo.ru has been developed. The site is currently supported by the Hydrometcenter of Russia. Since 2018, the contributions to the WGNE Blue book are submitted through the new WGNE site at http://bluebook.meteoinfo.ru/add_article.php.
Negative pressure also means negative energy and, therefore, “holes”, antiparticles. Continuation across infinity to negative energies is accomplished by using a parastatistical correction to the Bose-Einstein distribution.
This paper is an analysis of lexical categorisation of the temperature domain in modern Eastern Armenian. Compared to the vast research outline proposed in (Koptjevskaja-Tamm 2011), this paper has several important limitations. First, it is focused on non-derived, primary temperature terms (most of which happen to be adjectives or nouns, or both). Derived lexical items, as well as lexical items that apply to temperature phenomena only secondarily, are not considered. Second, it focuses on lexical rather than morphosyntactic categorisation, in the sense that more attention is paid, again, to lexical items than to the morphosyntactic patterns they are associated with. In a sense, we focus on elementary morphological units – dedicated temperature roots – rather than on the morphological and morphosyntactic patterns they are involved in.
As Eastern Armenian represents an elaborated system of temperature terms (some dozen lexical items), even under such restrictions the linguistic data presented below is well worth of analysis. To a certain extent, the issues of part-of-speech derivation are brought into consideration. It should also be noted that, as the examples in the paper show, there seem to be no sharp differences between e.g. morphosyntactic treatment of the subjects of tactile vs. ambient vs. personal temperatures, such as shown in Koptjevskaja-Tamm (2011) through a comparison of French, Finnish, Japanese and German examples. It is true that, as in many languages, in Armenian ambient temperature is often expressed by impersonal predication (cf. ex. 3 below). However, experiencers of personal temperature (as most experiencers in general), carriers of tactile temperature and meteorological phenomena expressed by explicit NPs (‘day’, ‘air’, ‘sun’) predicated by ambient terms are all treated as subjects. They are assigned nominative marking and control verbal agreement. There certainly may be finer morphosyntactic differences, but these are left for future research(ers).
The structure of the paper is as follows. Section 1 provides a brief genealogical, structural, sociolinguistic and historical account of the Eastern Armenian language and introduces the main source of the present study (Eastern Armenian National Corpus). Section 2 provides an overview of the temperature words of Eastern Armenian along the lines of the typological dimensions around which the present volume is centred, including the pivotal distinction between tactile and ambient temperatures. Personal temperature terms are in a sense independent from this main opposition, so that the discussion of personal temperatures goes alongside but apart from the main argument, both here and later in Section 6. Section 3 is an overview of metaphorical uses of the temperature terms. Section 4 considers part-of-speech properties and some aspects of derivational morphology of the Eastern Armenian temperature words. Section 5 is an account of the known etymologies of the terms. Section 6 introduces some data on relative textual frequencies of temperature terms. Section 7 is a summary of the paper.
This paper presents a method and computational technology for forecasting ambulance trips. We used statistical information about the number of the trips (per day or per night) in 2009-2013, the meteorological archive, and the corresponding archive of the meteorological measurements and meteorological forecasts for the same period. We take into account both social and meteorological predictors simultaneously. The impact of the meteorological factors (both climatic and short range lead times) into the statistics may be significant for some diseases. We present also the errors of these forecasts and demonstrate that the quality of our weather forecasts for the lead times 1- 3 days is good for the forecasting the number of ambulance trips.
The method may be used operatively for planning and control in the ambulance service. It may be applied for all trips and for specific subgroups of diseases. The method and the technology may be applied for any megalopolis if the corresponding medical and meteorological information is available.
Optimization of designing radio electronic equipment by criterions of temperature and reliability decrease time for creation the new radio electronic equipment, increase reliability of it and decrease expenditures during elementary stages of designing because designers have possibility to choose version of scheme and construction which ensure minimum temperatures of element base in conditions of exsploitation.
The monograph presents results by professor Dr. A. Shalumov’s Research School of Modeling, Information Technology and Automated Systems (Russia). The program, ASONIKA, developed by the school is reviewed here regarding reliability and quality of devices for simulation of electronics and chips during harmonic and random vibration, single and multiple impacts, linear acceleration and acoustic noise, and steady-state and transient thermal effects. Calculations are done for thermal stress during changes in temperature and power in time. Calculations are done for number of cycles to fatigue failure under mechanical loads as well as under cyclic thermal effects. Simulation results for reliability analysis are taken into account. Models, software interface, and simulation examples are presented.
For engineers and scientists involved in design automation of electronics.
On the basis of full stationary Navier-Stokes and Darcy equations an asymptotic solution of the hydrodynamic calculation of the porous bearing of finite length is presented. On the basis of numerical analysis obtained in the analytical expression for the bearing capacity is established that when the permeability of the porous layer varies according to the same laws that form the lubricating film, the bearing in the bearing capacity possesses the dual action property. The effect of Reynolds number on the main bearing performance is assessed.
Pressure sensors on the basis of thin-film tenzorezistorny nano – and microelectromechanical systems with the frequency output signal, steady to influence of temperatures are considered. Original schemes of frequency converters and topology of an arrangement of tenzoelement on a membrane of a sensitive element of the sensor are submitted.