Контрастивный анализ готских и древнефризских композитов
The paper offers an analysis of Gothic and Old Frisian compounds, mostly nouns, belonging to several basic semantic fields – namely kinship terms, representatives of authority, parts of the body and legal terms. Despite some stylistic differences, Gothic and Old Frisian compounds display common morphemic structure and are built according to nearly the same word-building patterns.
Special attention is paid to poetic means used to form the compounds in question and emphasize their semantics.
Im Beitrag wird der Gebrauch des Protoartikels in der Phrase (sa) sunus mans ʻdes Menschen Sohnʼ analysiert. Die variierende Markierung dieser Phrase geht weder nach dem Typ von Unika (ohne sa) noch nach dem Typ der erinnernder Kennzeichnung (mit sa); sie entzieht sich auch der Regel der anaphorischen Markierung. Es wird gezeigt, dass das Auftreten von sa mit den pragmatischen Faktoren begründet ist: es hängt mit der Identifikation des Sprechers im unmittelbaren Dialog mit Hörern zusammen. Sunus mans ohne sa kennzeichnet die verdeckte Rede Christi, deren Inhalt für die Hörer nicht immer verständlich ist.
The paper discusses 10 Old Frisian verbal constructions that can be considered noun-incorporated verbs. Nominal incorporation is wide-spread in Indo-European. In Germanic, nominal incorporation as applied to verbs is not productive as a word-formation tool, except for Frisian. S. Dyk, a linguist and an expert in Frisian, has carried out a comprehensive research on noun-incorporation in Modern Frisian (Dyk 1997). Some incorporated verbs are part of Middle Frisian texts. Yet, as the author states, no words following this word-formation pattern had been attested in Old Frisian. This paper present new data achieved within a PhD-thesis on compounding in Old Frisian (including all the attested lexis, which amounts to ca. 11,750 lemmas). The findings are 10 Old Frisian lexical constructions that might be treated as noun-incorporated (proto-)compounds due to a set of reasons. The arguments for considering these words to be noun-incorporated compounds are: (1) ‘terminological’ specification of their semantics; (2) proven evaluation of this word-formation pattern into a productive and frequent mechanism in Modern Frisian through Middle Frisian. The arguments against considering these words to be noun-incorporated compounds are: (3) no conjugational paradigm present in the actual contexts, i. e. the 10 words occur exclusively as substantivized infinitives and do not function as finite verbs yet; (4) the 10 words are not frequent in terms of being attested in various sources distinguished by chronological, spatial and genre-based criteria. Moreover, the paper discusses some limitations of the words’ possible interpretations, and their formal and semantic features are described. The 10 words are: bon-skelda ‘to impose a fine’, brond-skatta ‘to commit arson’, hēr-plokkia ‘to pull at someone’s hair’, holt-sāgia ‘to cut wood’, hreg-breka ‘to break someone’s back’, mes-lūka ‘to pull a knife’, rēd-slā ‘to give advice’, stēn-drega ‘to carry stones around the town (as a punishment)’, stēn-fēra ‘to move stones’, wax-drāia ‘to produce wax candles’. Semantically, most of the words refer to criminal, legal actions; two of them (‘to cut wood’ and ‘to produce wax candles’) are designations of highly frequent occupational actions. One of them, ‘to give advice’, is well-known for having cognates in other Germanic languages. These meanings might have been rendered through a noun-incorporating pattern for a reason: they denote some actions so frequent and collocational that they were bound to form ‘terminological’ items and develop into a productive ford-formation model.
The author investigates the distribution of proto-article in Gothic and provides the first systematic account of its usage with plural nouns denoting participants (disciples, Pharisees, scribes and others). On the initial stage of a grammaticalization process the Gothic demonstrative pronoun serves mainly as an anaphoric pronoun (anaphoric article). The anaphoric pronoun occurs after the first mention of a referent (group of participants) and indicates that participants in the discourse are already identified and accessible to the hearer. However, anaphoric pronouns cannot be used in the following discourse when the pragmatic accessibility of the referent is violated (for example, when the context indicates the change of location). The recognitional use (identifying the referent based on specific shared knowledge), non-referential contexts, the use of proto-articles in quoted speech and the emergence of indirect anaphor in Gothic are also analyzed.
The paper gives a brief overview of some authority denotations in Old Frisian, roughly grouped as administrative, judical and ecclesiastical terms. 64 compounds are considered in terms of their constitution and semantic type. Several generic conclusions are drawn, and, which is highly important, they are in line with the conclusions of a larger PhD-project investigating peculiarities of 2,400 Old Frisian nominal compounds -- the research that is yet to be finished.