Value Generation from Industry-Science Linkages in Light of Targeted Open Innovation
The chapter provides a substantial overview of features and channels of knowledge and technology transfer in light of achieving impact from science and research. A taxonomy of transfer channels is proved and levels of impact from science and technology on innovation is proposed. It’s found that there are different levels of value generated from STI, each featuring different stakeholders with different agendas and expectations. The authors argue that to make knowledge and technology transfer impactful and sustainable a long term and holistic view and approach is required. Against most literature about technology and knowledge transfer this work presents an overarching overview of objects, channels and features of partners involved in transfer. It features technology and knowledge transfer from a holistic perspective and provides useful background for future empiric studies and impact assessments.
Crisis is a burning issue; this is not a phenomenon, which can be conquered forever. Current approach to crisis is an optimized collaboration, which allows for manageable, measurable and predictable software development. Crisis is a new reality to live and work with. The current software development crisis dates back to the 1960s. The root cause of crisis is misbalance between resources and options. Understanding the nature of crisis helps to understand the reasons for the future crises.
This book is a navigator in lifecycle models, methodologies, principles and practices for predictable and efficient software development in crisis, i.e. under rapid requirement changes, resource deficit and other uncertainties. Therefore, the starting chapters suggest the major approaches to software development and their applicability in crisis. Further narration is case-based; it involves large-scale software implementations in different industries and knowledge transfer processes in IT education. The book suggests a set of principles that potentially marry the client’s and the developer’s views of the future software product in order to avoid or to mitigate the crisis.
The book will be helpful for students, postdocs, theorists and practitioners in software development. It suggests approved principles and practices of crisis management for software development.
This paper explores the role which crisis conditions play in shaping new innovation trajectories and enabling radical innovation. Drawing on a series of case examples from the health and humanitarian sector it shows how the experience of extreme conditions forces the search for new solutions which can bring significant performance improvements. Within this context the role of entrepreneurs as brokers, connecting together different worlds, is of particular importance. User involvement in a process of co-evolution is also highly relevant; such radical innovation systems emerge from a specific context and it is the regular interaction with users which shapes the emergent model in such a way as to permit rapid and widespread diffusion. We conclude with a discussion of the challenges posed by such modes as reverse and potentially disruptive innovations which established ‘mainstream’ organizations find difficult to accept or adopt – the ‘not invented here’ effect.
This study addresses ‘science-based’ technology transfer by research and technology organizations (RTO) whose mission is to combine intramural R&D and technology extension for industrial application. The paper is based on a unique database of Russian RTOs relating their science-based activity to technology transfer performance, on the one hand, and the contribution of R&D personnel sourced from universities to R&D output, on the other. The outcomes suggest a positive relationship between RTO scientific publication and technology transfer activity. Moreover, science-based outputs are contributed mostly by researchers coming to RTOs from academia. Such results are important to countries like Russia with many RTOs that play an important intermediary role between science and technological innovation. The study offers more fine-grained results regarding the differential impact of various types of academic personnel inflows in public versus private RTOs.
This is a book about the “how to” of one of the most important aspects of diaspora engagement — leveraging countries’ talent abroad to support development at home. The understanding that the diaspora (emigrants and their descendants who retain ties to their countries of origin or ancestry) can be a critical partner for development has emerged fairly recently, due in large part to the experience of two new global powers — China and India — whose rise to prominence owes much to the contributions of their talent abroad. In the amazingly short span of about 15 years, the importance of the diaspora to development has evolved from a novel and somewhat heretical hypothesis to conventional wisdom. Now it is commonly acknowledged that diasporas can be important, but the path of developing policies and programs to help realize the promise of diasporas has been fraught with frustration and disappointment. Diaspora contributions seem to come spontaneously rather than as a result of policy interventions; they are a matter of serendipity. By focusing on policy interventions that effectively promote diaspora contributions, the book fills an important gap in the literature.
The evolution of the exploitation of forests in Finland followed the logic of state and private firms. It was also characterized by the importance of technology transfers, which accompany major evolutions in this crucial activity for the country and put Finland at the crossroads of multiple influences and actors’ initiatives.
This paper studies technology creation and transfer of 95 Russian research and technology organisations (RTOs) into producer organisations in agriculture and mining. Previous findings suggested that in agriculture, the barriers for technology adaption are particularly high due to technological conservatism and the atomic structure of the industry. Although RTOs in agriculture publish more and register more patents, they struggle to translate their success into transfer activities. While technology transfer in mining goes well hand in hand with applied research, RTOs in agriculture either build on new technologies or generate revenues through ready-to-use services. The explanation for this rather short-term oriented demand for services of Russia's RTOs lies in the financial situation of client organisations. The vast majority complain about their dire lack of financial means to pay for new technologies. Consequently, agricultural producers do not generate enough revenues to pursue future opportunities, with far reaching consequences. The situation could get better if the RTOs and the client would agree to longer-lasting relationships.
During the last decades the number of universities extending their initial education and teaching missions towards the triple helix and knowledge triangle paradigms, e.g. knowledge and technology transfer and innovation has increased substantially. In line with this evolution the term ‘entrepreneurial university’ became increasingly popular however until recently there is hardly a common understanding of ‘entrepreneurial universities’. The main perception of ‘entrepreneurial universities’ rests with a visible and measurable contribution of universities to innovation and entrepreneurship in a broader sense. Although this perception is plausible and convincing it raises many open questions which mainly point to university governance models. The innovation and entrepreneurial university paradigm requires a holistic view on university governance approaches which include the full set of universities missions and respective management routines. In this respect it’s of utmost importance that universities keep a “healthy balance” between their missions. This statement is frequently used in many instances yet thus far there is no clear indication what a “healthy balance” implies. The chapter provides first indications about entrepreneurial university governance and respective management approaches.