This book presents reports of a set of research conducted in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe, the Russian Federation, and Uzbekistan after the collapse of USSR and so-called socialist bloc in Eastern Europe. Until now, there has been relatively little empirical research devoted to the changing values and identities across countries and generations in this region. This book has sought to make a valuable contribution to this understudied field.
Russia has been reforming its political, economic and social sectors for more than 20 years now. During this time the social structure has changed significantly as have the institutes and the entire system of social relations. Russian people have changed as well – researchers frequently record processes that show dynamics of their consciousness, norms and values specifics; however, researchers often emphasize that the changes appear to be ambiguous and complicated. Russian youth is of special interest in this respect. Young Russians were and still are going through secondary socialization in conditions when their identities, norms and values are shaped during the period of ongoing country-wide transformations that overlap with the large-scale worldwide processes of globalization, international division of labor, emersion of new kinds of inequality and new risks. Besides, the country’s future will be largely determined by norms and values of today’s Russian youth, as they will set possible vectors of development that may be accepted by the population in the medium and long run.
Similarly, Western researchers have long been focusing their attention on the youth group, their changing values and attitudes as well as comparison of this group with the older generation to determine the cultural dynamics vector or explore it as an actor, for which manifestation of deviant practices is most typical. Problems of youth values and attitudes are obviously relevant to the BRIC countries as they raise the question of what transformations can be initiated by the change of values shared by the new generation, whose socialization was influenced by fundamentally different conditions vs. the older generation of their population. In this context there is no surprise that researchers from BRIC perform comparisons of different generations within the country’s population, including cross-country comparisons of generations’ value systems.
Analysis of youth identities, norms and values is an important research objective for Russia. To assess the country’s cultural dynamics vector and forecast development of modernization processes, it is essential to identify which changes in the young people reflect the processes typical for the cultural dynamics of the entire population and which relate only to young Russians; understand which changes bring the Russian youth close to the youth in other BRIC countries and which changes separate them. This chapter is trying to find the answers to these questions.
This paper examines inter- and intragenerational value similarities and differences among two generations of ethnic Russian minority member living in two North Caucasus republics—North Ossetia-Аlania (RNO-A) and Kabardino-Balkaria (KBR) of the Russian Federation. It also compares them with values of two generations of Russians in the Central Federal District of Russia (CFD) and with values of indigenous people in these republics. The sample included 563 parent-adolescent dyads, 720 ethnic Russians and 406 members of the dominant ethnic groups in the North Caucasus republics overall. Data were obtained using Schwartz’s Revised Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-R). Scores for Schwartz’s four higher-order value types (Openness to Change, Self-Enhancement, Conservation, Self-Transcendence) were calculated. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed intergenerational gaps only for Openness to Change and Conservation values among the ethnic Russian minority in the North Caucasus republics, whereas among Russians in the CFD intergenerational gaps emerged for all higher order values. Furthermore, we found that the pattern of intergenerational similarities and differences in the Russian minority of RNO and KBR was closer to the patterns of the dominant ethnic groups of these republics than to the pattern exhibited by Russians in the CFD. The incurred intergenerational value differences are interpreted as reflecting differences in sociocultural contexts of the two generations’ at their times of upbringing, in line with sociological modernization theory.
The article deals with various historical narratives which can be used as a framework for the Russian-Polish relations during the long XIX century in contemporary historiography, first of all the Russian one. A special attention is paid to the Polish factor in the context of systematic elaboration of the history of Russian empire as well as the identities of the Russian-Polish frontier.
The problems of identity are no new theme in the research in African politics. In the foreground of interest of political scientists, historians, philosophers, sociologists and experts in African studies the identity appears in particular in connection with the for¬mation of African nations, the existence of nationalities and ethnics, which have direct influence on the operation of the African political system, especially its institutions. The scholars use a great many different approaches, which suggest the importance of these issues in the research in African integration processes and especially the process of development of modern African nations.
Do radical anticorruption measures such as lustration reduce corruption by systematically limiting the political participation of former authoritarian actors? While research has largely overlooked the role of transitional justice in addressing corruption, some scholars claim that lustration may increase corruption by reducing bureaucratic expertise. Analyzing original panel data from 30 post-communist states from 1996 to 2011, we find that lustration is effective in lowering corruption. Lustration disrupts the political, economic, and administrative malpractice of the preceding regimes by limiting opportunities for corruption of former communist elites. To illuminate the causal mechanism, we examine the cases of Estonia, which has adopted lustration and lowered corruption; Georgia, which has reduced corruption since first considering lustration; and Russia, which has not adopted lustration and maintains high levels of corruption. This study breaks new ground with a novel system-level explanation and an integrative approach to causation for the entire post-communist world.
The research is devoted to transmission of individual values, in particular the impact of socio-cul- tural context of residence (urban and rural area) on the similarities and differences in values of ado- lescents and their parents. The research method was a socio-psychological survey. As the instrument we used the Portrait Values Questionnaire by S. Schwartz (PVQ-R). We interviewed representatives of two generations: parents and children from 91 families in Moscow and 62 families in rural areas (n=306). For mathematical-statistical data processing we used: Student’s ttest, intraclass correlation and multivariate analysis of variance. The study established that intra-family similarity in values from blocks Openness to Change, Self-Enhancement and Self-Transcendence is somewhat higher in the families living in the city than in the families living in the village, and the value similarity in block Conservation is higher in families residing in the village. It is also established that adolescents’ values are more similar to the values of peers than to parents ' values, in both urban and rural societies. But at the same time, we identified value differences between urban and rural families. The greatest dif- ferences were observed in values of block Self-Transcendence. The value similarity of this block is higher in families living in the city than in families living in rural areas. In both samples we observed two options for the transmission of values: from parents to children and value influence of friends, peers, and socio-cultural context (place of residence). In urban society Self-Transcendence values are better transmitted, and in rural society Conservation values are better transmitted.
The paper is built on the data of all-Russian surveys carried out in recent few years by the Institute of sociology, Russian academy of sciences focusing on middle class dynamics, its place in the societal structure, its identification features, dominant position in it of the lower middle class layer caused by professional structure of Russia's economy. Also, way of life and consumption preferences of this class as well as eventual scope and pre-conditions for its growth is discussed. © 2015 r.