Динамика распространения сети Интернет в регионах России и перспективы интернет-занятости
The penetration of ICT into all spheres of human life has a significant impact on the structure of society, creating new phenomena or transforming the former. Among them - the emergence and spread of Internet employment. An attempt was made to analyze the spread of a new form of employment in the regions of Russia.
The second volume of the series "Demography. Sociology. Economics" is the result of work of the Centre of Social Demography and Economic Sociology of the Institute for Socio-Political Research with scientists from the Far East. The book consists of three sections. The first section deals with the general features of demographic processes and demographic policy in the Far East. The second section of the tendencies of migration processes and approaches to migration management. The third section presents articles on the problems of labor market and employment in the regions of the Far East. The book is recommended for students, postgraduate students, teachers, scientists and experts in the field of demography, migration and of the labor market, as well as all those interested in the Russian Far East.
This article presents the theoretic model determining factors to explain insufficient production activity of workers on a firm. The model shows in what conditions low level of workers’ activity is inevitable and allows to estimate its scale in dependence on such indicators as: wage level, productivity of labour, productivity in self-employment sector and some others.
The scientific value of this paper consists, first of all, in unique features of the model built, therefore such approach allows to estimate productive activity of workers from unusual side. The model when being implemented could show ways to improve productivity, to raise total efficiency and profitability.
Based on a sample of 5,784 Russian-speaking respondents, this study provides the first quantitative evidence on freelance contracting via the Internet. We explore the extent to which these virtual business relations are formal or informal, and the role of social capital and
networking. Our data suggest freelancers act under constant threat of malfeasance from clients. We address a number of questions associated with freelancers’ business risks and how freelancers might mitigate them. The logistic regression models reveal that the virtualization of relationships with clients is associated with greater moral hazard risks and fewer opportunities for dispute resolution. Formal written contracts do not prevent opportunistic behaviors by clients, though such contracts help resolve conflicts. Dealing with available social contacts and referrals decreases both the probability of extreme opportunism, causing financial losses, and the probability that disputes remain unresolved. Nevertheless, established social relations could be exploited by clients who
can delay payments or insist on altering deadlines, work scope and specifications. Thus, our findings contribute to existing literatures on social capital in freelance contracting and on the structure of occupational labor markets.
The level of self-employment among immigrants is often higher than among natives. The purpose of this paper was to test empirically whether selective migration with respect to entrepreneurial characteristics may explain this difference. The relevant hypotheses were tested comparing representative samples of Russian immigrants in Norway and their stay-at-home counterparts. Data from the Russian population came from the 2008 GEM study, while data on Russian immigrants in Norway were collected through a specially designed postal survey. The analysis revealed some demographic dissimilarity between the two groups, as well as a presence of selective migration with respect to entrepreneurial characteristics. This study demonstrates that immigrants (as compared to non-migrants) are more likely to report intentions to start a business. Moreover, they possess relatively large amount of specific human capital, social capital and self-confidence relevant for entrepreneurship. The paper concludes with proposed practical implications and suggestions for further research.