Некоторые особенности системы ценностей «Запада»
Philosophy and education of values. Features of the Western system of values.
The article describes a scale fit for evaluation of tendencies towards authoritarian ideologies. It is constructed on the basis of a system of alternative judgements fixing respondents' agreement by the following axes: collectivism/individualism; hostility/amicability of the surrounding world; equality of relationships with the surrounding world; inclination/opposition to acceptance of absolute authorities; negation/acceptance of universality of moral norms. Authoritarianism indices are presented, calculated for various social groups, proceeding from materials of two mass representative surveys conducted by VCIOM ('Culture', June 1992, and the monitoring, May 1994). The level of authoritarianism sufficiently depends on such factors as the age, education level, status of respondents, the form of propriety of organizations where they work, as well as the degree of adaptedness to the present socio-political situation, and ideological attitudes. Comparison of the two surveys has shown that at present the population of Russia is more strongly attracted by authoritarianisn than liberal notions. On the average in the sample, the correlation of 'authoritarian' and 'not authoritarian' was 3:2.
The topic of the present research is to demonstrate the key transformations of the intellectual practice related to the development of such category as negativity (non-existence) in the modern philosophy. Historically, classical philosophical solution to the problem of negative was to place it in the domain of transcendential, i.e. to substitute it with God, noumenality, will, etc. However, the conclusion of the post-Hegelian reflections is that the negative should be reunited with the world through man, who ultimately represents a part of this world. This inclusion of negative into the structure of Being, i.e. basically the ontologization of non-being, allows for integration of praxis into the world. Human dimension in this case is no longer a side effect, a consequence of a primary autonomy of the world, but represents that form through which the world comes to existence. This strategy of thematization of negative as the bases for transition from fundamental ontology to fundamental anthropology becomes the key theme for a number of philosophical contexts of the 20th century (Kojève, Sartre, Heidegger). At the same time, this strategy might be countered by another alternative, when negative is understood in such a way as to fully implement its own differential instead of substantial mission. Study of many concepts conceived in the 20th century shows that the main principle of this alternative was grossly disregarded – various excuses were used to subject negative to inadmissible for nonexistent substantivization. Had we reserved the only role for negativity – to manage the movement of distinctions and to distinguish – we could have avoided both – the antinomies found in classical philosophy as well as disappointments accompanying philosophical thought of the modern period.
This work outline on of the most interesting philosophical tradition in the Europe - the topic of idols. In this work we will consider the development of this tradition since Francis Bacon to Friedrich Nietzsche. We will consider the difference between “idols of science” and “idols of culture”. We will show the importance of this problem today, using the works of modern philosophers.
This work is dedicated to an attempt to answer the question, what for irony is needed. Usually it is considered to be just a literary device or a special way of conversation. However as any other source of language it has its grounds in the intention of the author and compared to this intention form, with the help of which irony effects its object. Is this way of effect interesting to philosophy – this is the question to answer. For this aim it will be useful to define the concept of irony. At first I will propone the two opposite point of view on irony, which were offered by Friedrich Schlegel and Hegel. Both these thinkers discern in irony a philosophical concept, although each in his way. Schlegel considered the nature of irony in its ability to show imperfection of all possible ways of expression infinite content. For Schlegel such vision meant a possibility to approach closer to this content. On the contrary Hegel saw in this effect of irony an origin of lightweight attitude to this content. What is the reason of such opposite interpretations of irony? Is this not irony itself? This is to be found out. In the end I will try to propose a new concept of irony and make some conclusions about it.
In the article on the basis of the psycholinguistic experimental data obtained in 2009-2010 from Russian and Swedish students (the project on Swedish Institute grant) we consider internal features of several complex values (“Harmony”, “Freedom”, “Democracy”, “Tolerance” and “Patriotism”) and analyze their external systemic organization, taking into account both specificity of the two cultures and gender specifics. We argue that value concepts are hierarchically organized, forming different generalization levels from the simple to the more complex ones with intricate overlapping among different complex values within the system.
In this study, the authors pinpoint the similarities and differences between students at a Russian university and a Swedish university regarding the students’ value systems. What similarities and what differences are there between male Swedish students and male Russian students, and what similarities and what differences are there between the female students in the two countries? The authors’ interest was directed towards the gender differences between the two countries. A method employing three phases was developed for analyses of the value systems in the two countries. Students, who, as a category, often challenge existing value systems, were chosen as informants. Student samples from each country, varying in number from 63 to 100 informants, provided data in the three sub-studies. The results indicated that similar national concepts, when translated into English, exposed significant differences in their connotations, a phenomenon which is discussed in relation to implications for intercultural communication. In particular, the concepts of democracy and gender equality are highlighted. Differences and similarities related to gender and nationality constitute the bulk of the discussion. A major finding was that concepts describing close interpersonal relations, such as friendship and love, were cross-nationally rated higher than values more distant from the individual’s private world, such as democracy and equal rights.