Общественное мнение и фикция всеобщей воли
El español aunque tiene muy poco que ver en muchos aspectos con los habitantes del norte y centro de Europa, es europeo y latino, por su historia y por su cultura. A pesar de todo, algunos dicen que «África empieza en los Pirineos», y esto se debe a la dominación árabe de duración de casi ocho siglos. Para mucha gente, los españoles son personas pequeñas, morenas que pasan la vida cantando y bailando flamenco, son muy aficionados a la corridas de toros, que les gusta mucho perder el tiempo hablando de todo en las tertulias en la sobremesa y que cuando están contentos, que es muy frecunte, dicem «olé». Esta idea es falsa.
As is well known, inequality is typical of every or at least most societies (e.g., Davis and Moore 1945: 243). Sociology considers power, wealth, prestige, status and privileges to be the main social benefits and resources, whose distribution defines the major forms of inequality (see e.g., Davis 1942; Smelser 1988; Lenski 1966; Sullivan 1998; Collins 2004)1. Sometimes education (or more generalized – ‘skill capital’ [Perrucci and Wysong 1999]) is included in this list. For instance, Berger points out that education is the main ‘capital’ of the new ‘knowledge-class people’ (Berger 1986; see below about it; see also Coser and Znaniecki 1968; Gouldner 1978); Giddens supposes that education reflects and affirms the existing inequality rather than encourages its elimination (Giddens 1993). Toffler and others quite rightly regard knowledge among such resources (see e.g., Toffler 1990).
The paper analyzes a specific nature of relations between the authorities and people in the legal environment of Russia. You will understand its specificity in the light of legal environment and time.
In July 2014 amendment to the Federal Law #131-FZ dated on October, 3, 2003 “On the general principles of the organization of the local self-government system in the Russian Federation” set out a typology of municipal formations for urban areas. For designing a new model two legal practices were used: the procedure of forming representative body of municipal district without municipal elections and the organization of LSG in federal cities. From 2003 till 2014 only two cities in RF had internal city entities with the status of local authorities – Moscow and Saint-Petersburg. The cities have the status of the subjects of the Russian federation. In comparison to other subjects Moscow and Saint-Petersburg have the additional competence in terms of establishing the financial basis and organizational structure of local authorities by regional acts in accordance with the federal legislation. The reason for this was the necessity to manage the city economy as a whole and to avoid its fragmentation. No other Russian cities (in spite of the territory and even with more than one million populations) had the same structure. The extension of Moscow capital city territory was realized by accession of some municipalities of the Moscow region (Moscovskaya oblast’). In accordance with the federal legislation their competence was broader than those of Moscow local municipalities. The organizational structure, competence and financing are the milestones of any LSG system. Thus, the balance and coherence between “New Moscow” and “Old Moscow” municipalities will be seen through these characteristics.
The article includes three special topics: the rules of the appointments of judges as a factor of their dependence; interaction between the courts and the administration in the context of weakness of a judicial power; co-called reform of a High Courts and the destiny of the Constitution. Some of the main conclusions of the article: 1) the President have got the power to appoint all federal judges and all chairmen of the Courts and their deputies. Meanwhile chairmen of the Courts and their deputies have got the serious administrative power. As a result of these changes the Courts turn into the hierarchical structures connected with the executive power. 2) These amendments reduced the possibilities of the creation of rule of law in Russia. The article studies some decisions of the Moscow regional Court as examples of these trend in the development of the judicial power. Оn the regional level these trend actually means the absolute loyalty of Courts to the regional executive power.
Article investigates some aspects of the liquidation of the Supreme Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation.
The book is published by the Italian-German Research Center on the basis of the International Scientific Conference «Imperium, state, civitas. Critical contribution to the concept of power in the postmodern era ", held in Villa Vigone (Italy) 19-21 March 2013. The book is a collection of the articles of Italian, German, Russian and Chinese professors of jurisprudence.
In his article Vladimir Kantor explores the destiny of Russia intelligentsia within the context of cultural crisis that took place at the turn of XIX and XX centuries, analyzing the Vekhovs, a group of leading intellectuals who ran a collection of essays, titled "Vekhi", studying their relationship towards that Russian cultural phenomenon. To author, the intelligentsia is considered as a critical factor in the development of Russian history. Within a context of the struggle around the "Vekhi", by referring to famous philosophical and literature books, published in 1909, the author focuses on relationships between intelligentsia and ordinary people, their attractive and repulsive interaction, which represents the key theme of the Russian destiny. Any historical movement occurs through tragedy; heroes who move the history have to sacrifice themselves to provide that movement. Confirmation to that idea would be rejection and exclusion of the Russian intelligentsia from the country's mentality throughout a number of generations which ultimately led to its tragic being.