АНАЛИЗ ФАКТОРОВ ПРЕДПРИНИМАТЕЛЬСКИХ НАМЕРЕНИЙ
The purpose of the article is to assess entrepreneurial spirit and entrepreneurial activity of students and to identify students’ needs in specific educational programs concerning the development of entrepreneurship projects in the innovative sphere on the example of National Research University Higher School of Economics in Nizhny Novgorod (HSE NN).
The empirical study was conducted in three stages during the years 2014-2015, including desk study, interview with experts and survey of students. Authors adapted the GEM and GUESSS questionnaires according to the aim to study students’ needs in entrepreneurship education in the innovative sphere. Questions added concern students’ needs in developing entrepreneurial competencies, skills, educational formats and topics of the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere.
Findings show the entrepreneurial spirit and activity of the HSE NN students, their needs in special educational programs of the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere. Students are ready to start an entrepreneurial project only after acquiring some experience as an employee. Findings indicate low entrepreneurial activity among HSE NN students. One of the main reasons for that is the shortage of the entrepreneurial competencies and skills among students. Low involvement of students in the current educational activities in the entrepreneurship is caused by low quality and effectiveness of them. It is offered, that curriculums for entrepreneurship and extracurricular activities should focus on entrepreneurship practices through the development of students’ projects. Findings reveal the most needed topics for studying the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere, such as team formation, business-planning, market strategy of the launching of the new product, depending on the specialization of students.
Research limitations appear in the focus on students of HSE NN. But the methodology could be used for the surveys of other Universities. It is worth mentioning the sample limitation. Due to the economic profile of the HSE NN, the research sample involves more students with economic specialty and less amount of students with mathematical and social specializations. The sample does not include technical specializations.
Russian and foreign universities could use the results in developing and improving educational activities for students in the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere.
Originality of the paper concerns the adaptation of the questionnaire to the survey in the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere. It allows revealing students’ needs in the educational activities in innovation entrepreneurship.
The article investigates entrepreneurial intentions factors in Russia. The empirical analysis is based on Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data. GEM methodology for survey uses a multistage, stratified, probabilistic sample of 2029 respondents to represent the adult population of Russia between the age 18 and 64 years. The models of binary choice are applied to reveal the factors of entrepreneurial intentions. The results demonstrate that it is hard to predict intentions on the base of socio-demographic characteristics. At the same time perception of having appropriate knowlege and skills to undertake entrepreneurial activity, individual's acquaintance with someone who has opened a business, the previous entrepreneurial experience and assessment of environmental favorability for starting up a business in the locality where the respondent lives determine entrepreneurial intentions in Russia.
The current research hypothesized that individual social capital facilitates the implementation of one’s intention to start a business. The research samples were drawn from a sample of 2061 adult respondents: a sub-sample of 269 adults who stated their intention to start their own business during the next two years (‘intenders’) and a matching sub-sample of 270 who said they did not intend to do so (‘non-intenders’). The study shows that the ‘intenders’ possessed greater individual social capital. These resources had a positive indirect impact (through increased perceived behavioural control and attitude) on their intention to start their own business.