The Reflection as an Ethic Value (Lidiia Ginzburg’s essay “The Thought That Described a Circle”)
The reflection diagnostic technique is based on long-term fundamental theoretical and methodological researches of Russian psychologists. A new approach to reflection diagnostics is focused on the study of reflexivity mechanisms within the structure of activity. The reflection is considered as the process of person’s consciousness of the means and ways of his/her activity, and of the causes of its successes or failures. By reflection it becomes possible to reproduce past experience, to get the experience and to turn it into the way to act in problem situation.
The assessment of the reflexivity mechanisms quality in activity processes enables to understand the activity as it is processing, to enhance its productivity, to minimize expenditure of time and efforts in life and professional task solving. The technic is based on ideas of subject-activity approach developed by such Russian psychologists as Rubinstein S.L., Abulkhanova K.A. and Brushlinsky V.A., and the psychological model of functional activity system developed by Shadrikov V.D. In keeping with this model the following indices of reflection have been identified:degree of basic need and motive of activity, action and deed awareness (the awareness of what is person actually wants); character of activity, action and deed goal (the presence of clear image of expected result); assessment of extrinsic and intrinsic motive of activity, action and deed; decision-making in activity, action and deed preformation; program (plan) of activity, action and deed; fulfillment of activity, action and deed; assessment of activity, action and deed progress results; qualitative and quantitative descriptions of achieved final result.
The reflection diagnostic technique is a questionnaire that consists of 56 closed questions. The questions are structured according to sequentially solved tasks of activity. The in-depth analysis is implemented by series of open questions. The technic is oriented to adult from 16 to 65 years old.
The purpose of the research is to substantiate the development of integral branch of modern psychology of personality which is defined as personology. The research stresses the need to change dominating analytical approaches to the study of personality for the synthetic approach defined as «science of synthesis». It will reflect multiple ties between different theories and consulting personality models; experience of creating a single semantic space for personality cognition; unity of theoretical, cultural and practical psychology of personality. This triple format of personology is focused on discovery and realization of self-cognition of the personality as well as personality of the personologist being the subject of hermeneutics, theoretical studies and practical activity. The research defines the subject of personology based on positions of synthesis as well as defines the foundation for integration of the personological knowledge, structure of personology, content, method and forms of interaction between cultural, fundamental and consulting psychology.
We calculate determinants of weighted sums of reflections and of (nested) commutators of reflections. The results obtained generalize the matrix-tree theorem by Kirchhoff and the Pfaffian-hypertree theorem by Massbaum and Vaintrob.
The commented famous work by S.J. Gould and R.C. Lewontin is crucial not only to sociobiology critique but to polemics on evolutionary theory in general. Reflection provoked by Gould and Lewontin’s paper in the field of philosophy of biology enables to clarify the relation between the adaptationist program and biological reductionism.
The book is devoted to consideration in a popular form of evolution of one of the most debatable creations of the Western European metaphysics – the ontological evidence for God's existence or ontological argument. The idea of classical and non-classical arguments has allowed the author to analyses argument development as process of formation of the reflexive methodology, which is adequate for knowledge of the systems including free activity of the person. These are the problems constantly facing modern social sciences; therefore, despite the historical and philosophical direction of the book, the problems that are relevant to modern social and human sciences are under continued discussion. The book is primarily addressed to specialists in the field history of philosophy and methodology of social knowledge, philosophy and sociology of religion, and also to all who are interested in fundamental questions of classical metaphysics.
The twenty-first century has brought about a new type of society, the information-based society. Although this type doubtless provides a lot of opportunities for development and self realization, which are the top needs, according to Maslow hierarchy, we cannot but notice the existing downside as well. What is being promoted as a life motto worldwide is the combination of pragmatism and hedonism, which especially appeals to the youth. Such a combination presupposes that young people faced with overload of available information prove to be unwilling to memorize this information or make sure that they understand it, since they can gain access to it whenever and wherever they want or need. On the other hand, the information-based society requires a change in the existing educational paradigm, which means that the main focus of educators is shifting towards the development of higher order thinking skills (HOTS) while ignoring lower order thinking skills (LOTS). The second stage of our ongoing project deals with the distinction between lower order and higher order thinking skills with a special focus on the former . We regard LOTS as an indispensable part of the development of sophisticated thinking. To prove our hypothesis we have conducted a qualitative study. Two groups of second-year bachelor students of the Higher School of Economics, who participated in the first stage of our project devoted to the development of a disposition towards critical thinking, continue to be involved in it. It is vital to note that these students are learning English as their second language. Having received the results of the first phase we thought it necessary to adjust the key concepts emphasizing the significance of LOTS and step-by-step process of developing them. For that purpose, during the first three-month cycle the students of both control and experimental groups worked with the book by John Grisham “The Pelican Brief” while for the second cycle we chose short stories by Alice Munro. The text-based approach was applied to teaching the students of both groups (ex-control and experimental). Special techniques were used to measure the students' level of understanding and the ability to apply the given information. In the course of the experiment we have found out that the more advanced the students' comprehension level became the better their ability to remember new words got. However, in the experimental group LOTS proved to be deeper and more logically developed. Whereas in the control group, despite a significant shift, LOTS remained more shallow and context-based. The development of HOTS and the influence of LOTS on this process will be the focus of the third stage of our project.
The article is devoted to the 80th anniversary of the prominent psychologist and educator - V. V. Davydov, who (together with D. B. Elkonin) has developed psychological base and pedagogical practices of the developing education. The main focus of the elaborated program was the development of theoretical thinking and the formation of readiness to thought and the ability for conceptual thought among school children. The article is an attempt to apply conceptualizations developed by V.V. Davydov to the analysis of thinking as such.The greatest attention is given to reflection and intuition.