Проблема презентизма и эволюционная эпистемология
Diverse forms of presentism and antiquarism in historiography of science are shown to be not historical enough. Evolutionary epistemology of David Hull is used to historicize them.
History of concepts "phlogiston" and "oxygen" shows applicability of Quine's indeterminacy of translation thesis to the problem of presentism in historiography of science. It is argued that this thesis speaks in favor of pluralism in historiography of science.
Selectionist evolutionary epistemology allows for both realistic (Popper) and anti-realistic (Toulmin) interpretation while catastrophist/saltationist evolutionary epistemology (Kuhn) leads to anti-realism.
Classical, selectionist (adaptationist) evolutionary epistemology of science draws an analogy between development of science and natural selection. But natural selection immediately increases only the relative fitness of organisms with regard to specific and changing environment. Therefore evolutionary epistemology of science is exploited (by van Fraassen in particular) against scientific realism which presumes existence of absolute scientific progress as an approach to truth. In modern biology in order to explain absolute evolutionary progress nonadaptationist, nonselectionist models based on a passive trend mechanism (a random walk limited by walls) were worked out, the ratchet model in particular. This paper suggests nonadaptationist extension of evolutionary epistemology of science, namely the ratchet model of scientific progress and illustrates it by history of thermodynamics. This model enables to combine realistic concept of scientific progress as an approach to truth with antirealistic concept of scientific development as an improvement of problem-solving ability: the former is ascribed to scientific dynamics on a global scale and the latter on a local.
Legal scholarship is often presented as an objective impartial knowledge of what the law is or was. Yet the role of ideologies in its interpretation should not be underestimated, especially in writing and rewriting foreign and national legal history. Remarkable Byzantine studies in Russia, their rise, fall and revival, could be a good example to explore the relevance of beliefs and ideas of the scholars. This paper investigates how the dominant ideologies have been continuously shaping the knowledge about Byzantine Roman law in Russian academia. It covers such issues as the intensity of studies, the understanding of law, the major topics, the pull of sources and the methods of their analysis, the main results of historical reconstruction during (1) 19th-century imperial Russia, (2) Soviet and (3) contemporary Russia. Reconstruction of the ideological background of the major Russian Byzantinists should enable us to assess the validity of their vision of Byzantine Roman law and its relevance for the international Byzantine legal studies.
The development of evolutionary thinking is under consideration in the article; heuristic possibilities and possible limits for interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledgeare estimated. It is justified that synthetic, integrative and holistic trends – in contrast to disciplinary differentiation of science in the epoch of Modern time – are predominant in science of the XXI century. Evolutionary thinking which is understood in the most broad sense of its word is based nowadays not only on the theory of biological evolution, but also on the modern theory of complex adaptive systems, network science and nonlinear dynamics. Such a thinking becomes a foundation of a new naturalism which allows us to formulate strategies of evolutionary, naturalistic explanations in epistemology, ethics, politics, aesthetics. Taking as an example evolutionary epistemology, the author analyses its modern trends of development and demonstrates how this field meets interdisciplinary challenges of the modern scientific knowledge.
Nowdays every serious attempt to justify scientific realism is obliged to somehow manage van Fraassen’s employment of evolutionary epistemology against the important realistic «no-miracles argument». Thus a systematic translation of arguments pro et contra sufficiency of natural selection for evolutionary progress into epistemological language is needed. The main thesis of this paper is that it is difficult and maybe even impossible to reconcile scientific realism with classic evolutionary epistemology based on selectionist models.
Imagination as a problem of evolutionary epistemology is in the focus of attention of the authors of the book. Achievements of the modern cognitive science, life sciences, and neuroscience are involved in the analysis of this traditional epistemological problem, i.e. the problem is under discussion here in the interdisciplinary prospects. The ability of productive imagination is considered in the connection with the newest studies in creativity, the human creative capabilities. The consideration of imagination is placed in the context of the modern discussions of mental imagery, of perceptive thinking, of the role of visualization in mind's games, in the mental processes which take place in different states of consciousness. Imagination is studied in connection with the problems of individual, bodily and spiritual, cultural and social components of the cognitive processes.
The complex phenomena of the individual creative activities as well as the historical development of scientific knowledge are under consideration from the point of view of the theory of self-organization (synergetics) in the book. Synergetics is characterized as a new research programme in a wide philosophical, cultural and historical context. The synergetical reinterpretations of some peculiarities of the creative thinking, such as the alternative ways and the scenarios, the latent attitudes and the predeterminations, the self-completing of whole images, are proposed here. The synergetical view of historical development of scientific knowledge is compiled in the book from the notions of the principal nonlinearity and cyclic character of science development,the inertia of the paradigmal consciousness in science, the value of marginal and archaic elements in science. For readers who are interested in evolutionary epistemology and the philosophical problems of synergetics.