Институциональные особенности обеспечения безопасности дорожного движения
Road safety is a complex multi-faceted concept that characterizes the efficiency of the country's road transport system. Today, Russia occupies the 124th place in the world for road safety. The level of accidents on the roads of Russia is comparable with this indicator in Nigeria and Cameroon.
The urgency of work is caused by the increase in the rates of injuries and deaths in road accidents. The question of the formation of the concept of safe movement on the roads is the goal laid in the all-Russian project on road safety. In addition, on the territory of the Russian Federation there is a road map for reducing accidents, where the authors of this program note pay attention to the need to change the traffic management system.
In addition, accidents on roads are a threat to the national security of the country. Each road accident brings huge damage to the state, both economic and demographic. Annually, the damage from an accident for the Russian economy is about 140 billion rubles.
The collective monograph deals with the fundamentals and principles of venture financing, the history of its emergence, distinctive features from other types of investment. The book proves the relevance of the developing logistics infrastructure and the formating regional transport and logistics system based on the cluster approach in the Omsk region. The monograph deals with the problem of road safety from the institutional approach. Collective monograph can be recommended to senior managers, business professionals, university professors, graduate students, students of senior courses in economic specialties.
Advanced mathematical and static methods of processing of the results of experimental studies, comparison of the obtained data with the works of authors investigating traffic safety, analysis, reconstruction and investigation of road traffic accidents, as well as expert analysis helped to identify the most relevant parameters of the vehicle condition and the road environment necessary for automobile technical expert evaluation (e.g. the friction coefficient, vehicle braking performance under different loads on all categories of roads with different types of road surface, roughness, wheel tracking, hydraulic roughness) and to obtain their actual values that are important for expert studies; and that was proved by experiments. The developed method of reconstruction and investigation of accidents implies calculation of state parameters of the vehicle and the road environment on the basis of the type of the investigated accident and geometric characteristics of the accident place.
Any road traffic system is very complicated and can be dangerous to health. Elements of this system include motorized transport vehicles, roads, road users as well as physical, social and economic environment. Countries with high automobilization have long ceased to consider traffic accidents as a pure “chance”; furthermore, efforts aimed at preventing and mitigating negative consequences of traffic accidents are thoroughly designed and structured.
In 1972, William Haddon published his study with incorporated approaches that used to be individually applied to trauma epidemiology and transport engineering. Haddon suggested a model to analyze traffic situations that were dangerous to health. Haddon’s approach allowed to achieve a notable progress in understanding factors related to driver’s behavior, vehicle characteristics and road infrastructure conditions affecting emergence of traffic accidents and severity of consequences for participants. Haddon’s approach turned out to be a useful analytical instrument and became widely used in healthcare.
International road safety priorities are defined by the slogan “towards zero”, which describes the aim to reduce the road mortality rates to a zero. The Russian Federation (along with China, India, and Brazil) is one of the «Risky States–10», which are the 10 countries with the high level of road fatalities and where more than half of the world traffic-related deaths occur. Even though the level of the transport risk has fallen over a decade (2005–2015) from 11.13 to 4.3, Russia still hasn’t reached the mark 3, which had been the target for the developed countries in the middle of the 20th century. If the mortality rate in Russia was as low as it is in the UK, Sweden or Netherlands, the number of road deaths per year would be about 3.5–4 thousand instead of 27 thousand. Motorization rates in Russian cities are essentially higher than country average. That’s why cities have much more road accidents and higher mortality rates. The situation is aggravated by the widespread practice of the combination of the road and street functions in the one technical object, which is aimed to let through the large volumes of traffic and is traced along the usual urban street. This leads to the larger amount of accidents with pedestrians due to the insufficiency and inconvenience of the underpasses and overpasses. The problem of the road safety receives much attention: the official meetings involving the first persons of the state are held regularly; world best practices in road safety are surveyed; fines for the traffic regulations violation are getting higher; the concepts of “value of life” and “aggressive driving” are introduced; quick response emergency systems are implemented. Some measures are taken to prioritize the pedestrians: pedestrian streets, zones of restricted access and speed limits within the urban territory are created. Still the crucial changes in the levels of road safety can’t be seen yet. The chapter provides a comparison of the main engineering tools and methods as well as institutional conditions for ensuring road safety in urban areas in Russia and in a number of developed regions of the world. Some recommendations for achieving further progress towards a civilized level of road safety in Russia are made.
The paper examines correlation in planning and organizing logistics of supplying goods and the issue of safety at urban roads; a model to determine the time of goods delivery is proposed on the basis of logistic concept “just-in-time” that takes into account the requirements of road safety on the one hand, and the customer-oriented approach of delivery, applied technologies and management solutions, on the other. The model is based on an integrated approach to the management of logistics processes; it can serve as a basis for decision making among departments in transport enterprises, logistics departments at industrial and trade enterprises, and corporate consumers. The paper also proposes to add the second level parameters to the system of logistics key performance indicators (KPI); these parameters would allow evaluating the target performance in goods transportation, as well as actual performance of logistics operations, including transportation in terms of road safety.
Abstract. Over more than ten years, Russia has been at the top of the list of the OECD countries by traffic-related death rate per 1000 residents. The death rate in Russia is five- to six-fold greater than in most of the developed countries, given that the number of cars per 1000 residents is much lower. Despite the increased attention and financing, the problem of road traffic injuries remains unresolved. The implementation of the 2006- 2012 Road Safety Federal Target program did not bring about the expected results. Russia`s lagging behind the leading countries in traffic injury prevention is due to the ineffective system of law control and implementation. The problem of corruption in the road safety management is of special attention. According to a number of experts, today the political efforts to tackle the road safety problem is only aggravate the situation and contribute to the increase in corruption cases which shows the ineffectiveness of the policies. Effective road traffic safety policy requires a good knowledge of the situation. With the lack of scientific studies and regular publications devoted to this problem, there is nothing left but taking impulsive and random decisions.
The Proceedings of reports presented at the 12th International Conference on Road Organization and Safety in Big Cities (St. Petersburg, 28-30 September 2016) covers a wide range of theoretical and practical issues related to road deaths prevention (up to “zero” level) – conceptual, legal, organizational, technological, informational, etc. Following the goal it builds up the knowledge base on the space (complete set) of factors affecting the level of road safety, as well as studies the preventive measures for potential causes of road crash fatalities. The research area includes all levels of the state system hierarchy related to road safety: from the first (the road) level, revealing the final causes of road crashes such as speeding, driving in the opposite direction, etc., to the upper government management levels that can bear the root causes of road crash fatalities and casualties. Subjects of research include general and regional road safety systems, technologies (techniques, methods, mechanisms) for their efficient organization and management, as well as the organization of various subsystems, functionally connected by the system-wide goal. The articles in these Proceedings focus on various subjects, such as the quality of legislative and regulatory issues ensuring system wide activities on road deaths prevention and their rigorous practical implementation; issues of development of transport infrastructure, including bicycles; issues of intellectualization of systems and processes, formalization (including mathematical) of modeling and design tasks of various objects in the system, their effectiveness assessment and sustaining the latter in the operational mode; issues of justification and practical application of the mechanisms of formation of the main functional properties of the systems that make up the quality and create possibilities for on-line monitoring of the functioning processes and prediction of their condition; issues of GIS modeling of road networks, modeling of transport accidents, prevention of drinking and driving, etc. The Conference holders believe that these materials will help find solutions and promote a transfer of the current road safety practices in Russia to a rigorous system approach, to methods of continuous (in CALS-technologies terms) modeling (improvement) of the road crash deaths prevention systems – the only generally recognized scientific tool for efficient complex systems study, to the development of a sustainable knowledge base and targeted experts systems – a tool to manage competence, responsibility and loyal motivation of personnel, and ultimately - to saving lives on the roads.
The article analizes the most important trends in the recent Western historiography of Russia's agrarian reforms.