Россия в современном мире: экономическая оценка
The collective monograph deals with the fundamentals and principles of venture financing, the history of its emergence, distinctive features from other types of investment.
The book proves the relevance of the developing logistics infrastructure and the formating regional transport and logistics system based on the cluster approach in the Omsk region.
The monograph deals with the problem of road safety from the institutional approach.
Collective monograph can be recommended to senior managers, business professionals, university professors, graduate students, students of senior courses in economic specialties.
Road safety is a complex multi-faceted concept that characterizes the efficiency of the country's road transport system. Today, Russia occupies the 124th place in the world for road safety. The level of accidents on the roads of Russia is comparable with this indicator in Nigeria and Cameroon. The urgency of work is caused by the increase in the rates of injuries and deaths in road accidents. The question of the formation of the concept of safe movement on the roads is the goal laid in the all-Russian project on road safety. In addition, on the territory of the Russian Federation there is a road map for reducing accidents, where the authors of this program note pay attention to the need to change the traffic management system. In addition, accidents on roads are a threat to the national security of the country. Each road accident brings huge damage to the state, both economic and demographic. Annually, the damage from an accident for the Russian economy is about 140 billion rubles.
The report is devoted to comprehensive research in the field of strategic planning, logistics infrastructure in to ensure the implementation of export-import and transit potential of Russia in the global system of international transport corridors (ITC). Particularly attention spares to the place and the role of the Russian Transportations Ministry and the Russian Rail-way joint stock company in the investment projects realization, also to the problems of the logistics infrastructure development in sea ports and multimodal transport junctions for example North-East and Moscow regions.
The world has changed significantly because of the active development of scientific and technological advances over the past decade. A new emerging “economic reality” is characterized by the modernization of economic systems, globalization, computerization, informatization, humanization, ecologization, formation of a new model of socio-economic development of human society, etc. These changes require a new approach to the solution of various political, economic and social problems. The present-day economic reality provides a variety of forms and models of economic activity. Each country or region has its unique experience in solving the above-mentioned problems. Nowadays, the Russian economy is in recession. This inevitably has influenced the economic potential of the regions, which has led to worsening of the living standards of the population. In this regard, a review of the model of the regional socio-economic development and redesign of the regional economic policy is must. The formation of the new economy should include new ideas about the sources and factors of the economic development, including the potential of international cooperation, strengthening connection between science and education, knowledge transfer and investment in human capital. This book summarizes the results of the Russian studies in regional economics and aims to solve the following tasks: • to determine institutional peculiarities of the Russian model of the regional development; • to consider the mechanisms of innovative development of the Russian regions; • to analyze the main trends of the regional policy that provides the complex, balanced development of the region; • to analyze structural changes in regional economies in the context of global challenges. This book includes materials of the International Scientific Conference “Economics in the Changing World” held on June 26–27, 2018, at the Institute of Management, Economics and Finance of Kazan Federal University (Kazan, Russia). This conference combines the contributions of leading specialists in the field of v management, territorial development and state, regional and municipal management. It also covers modern trends in the development of economic complexes and firms, economics of innovative processes, social policy, financial analysis, mathematical methods in economic research, etc. The presentations of the conference are grouped into three main categories, which form the basis of the parts of this book. The first part “Regional Economic Development” is devoted to the problems of transport development, agroindustrial complexes, investment policy and formation of methodological approaches to the effective work of small innovative enterprises of regional importance. The leading work “Institutions in the Context of the Regional Development of Russia” by scientists D. Vuković, N. Y. Vlasova and O. T. Ergunova is devoted to the role of the regional development institutions in the socio-economic regional development of the Russian Federation. The authors summarize the experience of managing the regional development institutions. They also conclude that it is necessary to increase the degree of influence on the development of the economic and social infrastructure of the regions of the Russian Federation. The work clarifies the nature and the content of the concept “regional institution of development,” as well as the main groups of the regional development institutions existing in Russia. The scientists develop trends toward increasing the efficiency of their functioning based on the survey. This survey is conducted for the heads of the development institutions the entities of the Russian Federation in terms of authority and degree of independence aimed to support investors and interact with them. The authors consider priorities in choosing current projects to develop the investment and social infrastructure, as well as the problems that hinder their efficient operation. The article “Infrastructure Projects and Transport Systems Financing in Russia” by L. R. Ikhsanova et al. is essential for this part. It is devoted to the problem of project financing of transport system development. Based on the analysis of Russian transport systems financing, the authors prove that during the economic development, the importance of budget financing is gradually decreasing. And nowadays, private and foreign investments and public-private partnership in financing of the infrastructure projects are becoming increasingly important. Using econometric tools, the authors evaluate the impact of the transport sector on the Russian GDP. Also, it is worth noting the work “The Influence of the Russian Economic Crisis on the Regional Peculiarities of Investment Activity” by M. N. Mironova, U. V. Mizerovskaya, E. V. Zhigalina and L. V. Shubtsova from the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. The authors present a comprehensive analysis of the negative trends of investments in the economy of Russia and its regions, caused by the economic recession. The analysis of the investment structure shows a decline in the share of state property and an increase in the private property. This is associated with an increase in own funds and the growth of investments in mining operations and real estate. The authors compare the regional priorities of domestic and foreign investors and show the general level of investment activity in the regions and the prospects for the regional development of the Russian economy. vi Introduction The second part “Problems of Contemporary Regional Policy” is devoted to the government support for the regions, small enterprises and banks. The work “Food Stamps as a Method of the Parallel Government Support” by A. Nechaev, E. Ilina and M. Li is of particular interest. The scientists propose using food cards to support not only the population but also the regional agricultural commodity producers. It is proposed to limit the trade increment to 10% for essential products, which will allow developing the enterprises to find permanent market outlets. The low level of the trading margin will allow increasing the selling price for the manufacturer. This will contribute to the growth of the profitability of the main activity and indirectly stimulate the introduction of innovations. The authors believe that the proposed tool of support is promising in the context of the financial deficit since the funds allocated to the population stimulate agricultural production and increase the profitability of enterprises. The problem of investments and development of high-tech industries is one of the key subjects in this book. Thus, scientists O. I. Koloskova, I. V. Somina and M. Radosavljevic attempt to model the innovative activity of the Russian enterprises. They conclude that the most significant determinants of the innovation process in Russia are the market demand factor, investment-technological and business factors. The third part “Structural Changes in the Regional Economy” is devoted to the problems of particular sectors development in the regional economy. Efficiency assessment of the regional economy sectors is in the spotlight of I. A. Kabasheva, I. A. Rudaleva, A. V. Gorbatov and O. A. Krioshina in their work “The Effectiveness of the Regional Healthcare System: The Evidence from the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia).” The authors model the system of indicators for the assessment of the working efficiency of the health system in the Republic of Tatarstan. The authors assert that this model can be used for revising government programs and subprograms in health care. A number of works are dedicated to the development of the fuel and energy complex. E. A. Potapova, E. I. Bulatova, A. N. Kiryushkina and T. V. Polteva consider the development of the oil and gas industry through the prism of environmental safety. They note the existing paradoxical situation: The increase in the internal R&D expenses of the Russian oil and gas companies does not lead to the reduction in the pollutant emissions to the environment. Xiang Li, Aleksandr S. Bovkun, Galina M. Beregova, Aleksandr F. Schupletsov and Yullia A. Skorobogatova define approaches to building an effective system of project management in the field of renewable energy sources. They are convinced that the potential of renewable sources of energy in Russia is undervalued. But the use of modern management technologies will allow realizing power-efficient projects in this field. The work “Mathematical and Cartographic Modeling and Demographic Analysis of Rural Settlements” written by V. A. Rubtzov, N. K. Gabdrakhmanov, N. M. Biktimirov, M. R. Mustafin and R. R. Nurmieva (Institute of Management, Economics and Finance of Kazan Federal University) is also of relevance. The authors pay special attention to considering the issues of complex presentation of Introduction vii spatial and coordination information about the population. The modern methods and solutions used in the demographic analysis are discussed in this work. The scientists show that the geographic and cartographic components often become the main way of studying natural or socio-economic systems, including the population at the regional level. The efforts of the authors, reviewers, participants and organizers of the conference make it possible to discuss the issues devoted to the economic development of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. All the conference participants have made a great contribution to holding of the conference. The chairpersons of the program committee of the conference are N. G. Bagautdinova (Doctor of Economics, Professor, director of the Institute of Management, Economics and Finance of Kazan Federal University) and Yu. N. Moseikin (Doctor of Economics, Professor, head of the Department of National Economics of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia). The gratitude should also be expressed to the conference organizers from the higher educational institutions of Kazan Federal University and RUDN University.
The innovation business development problems in Russia is considered. It is showed the conditions, which are providing small innovation enterprise activity. The role of venture investment in innovation business development are analyzed.
Advanced mathematical and static methods of processing of the results of experimental studies, comparison of the obtained data with the works of authors investigating traffic safety, analysis, reconstruction and investigation of road traffic accidents, as well as expert analysis helped to identify the most relevant parameters of the vehicle condition and the road environment necessary for automobile technical expert evaluation (e.g. the friction coefficient, vehicle braking performance under different loads on all categories of roads with different types of road surface, roughness, wheel tracking, hydraulic roughness) and to obtain their actual values that are important for expert studies; and that was proved by experiments. The developed method of reconstruction and investigation of accidents implies calculation of state parameters of the vehicle and the road environment on the basis of the type of the investigated accident and geometric characteristics of the accident place.
The strategic doctrine of creation of the Logistic centre presented in article in the Uhlan Udensky transport junction and making up of the integrated transport and logistic system in Republic Buryatia is directed on maintenance of realization of Strategy of social and economic developing of Republic Buryatiya as is innovative technological, transport and communication and tourist and recreation complex of world level. The urgency of development of the strategic doctrine is determined, first of all, by a high urgency of logistics in modern Russia, as strategic factor of maintenance of competitiveness and steady economic growth of the country, and also
necessity of the decision within the limits of realisation of Transport strategy of Russia of commitments of developing of regions of Siberia and the Far East.
The paper examines correlation in planning and organizing logistics of supplying goods and the issue of safety at urban roads; a model to determine the time of goods delivery is proposed on the basis of logistic concept “just-in-time” that takes into account the requirements of road safety on the one hand, and the customer-oriented approach of delivery, applied technologies and management solutions, on the other. The model is based on an integrated approach to the management of logistics processes; it can serve as a basis for decision making among departments in transport enterprises, logistics departments at industrial and trade enterprises, and corporate consumers. The paper also proposes to add the second level parameters to the system of logistics key performance indicators (KPI); these parameters would allow evaluating the target performance in goods transportation, as well as actual performance of logistics operations, including transportation in terms of road safety.
The Proceedings of reports presented at the 12th International Conference on Road Organization and Safety in Big Cities (St. Petersburg, 28-30 September 2016) covers a wide range of theoretical and practical issues related to road deaths prevention (up to “zero” level) – conceptual, legal, organizational, technological, informational, etc. Following the goal it builds up the knowledge base on the space (complete set) of factors affecting the level of road safety, as well as studies the preventive measures for potential causes of road crash fatalities. The research area includes all levels of the state system hierarchy related to road safety: from the first (the road) level, revealing the final causes of road crashes such as speeding, driving in the opposite direction, etc., to the upper government management levels that can bear the root causes of road crash fatalities and casualties. Subjects of research include general and regional road safety systems, technologies (techniques, methods, mechanisms) for their efficient organization and management, as well as the organization of various subsystems, functionally connected by the system-wide goal. The articles in these Proceedings focus on various subjects, such as the quality of legislative and regulatory issues ensuring system wide activities on road deaths prevention and their rigorous practical implementation; issues of development of transport infrastructure, including bicycles; issues of intellectualization of systems and processes, formalization (including mathematical) of modeling and design tasks of various objects in the system, their effectiveness assessment and sustaining the latter in the operational mode; issues of justification and practical application of the mechanisms of formation of the main functional properties of the systems that make up the quality and create possibilities for on-line monitoring of the functioning processes and prediction of their condition; issues of GIS modeling of road networks, modeling of transport accidents, prevention of drinking and driving, etc. The Conference holders believe that these materials will help find solutions and promote a transfer of the current road safety practices in Russia to a rigorous system approach, to methods of continuous (in CALS-technologies terms) modeling (improvement) of the road crash deaths prevention systems – the only generally recognized scientific tool for efficient complex systems study, to the development of a sustainable knowledge base and targeted experts systems – a tool to manage competence, responsibility and loyal motivation of personnel, and ultimately - to saving lives on the roads.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.