Infrastructure and Transport. Situation Analysis and Key Challenges
After the total governmental control of the urban transport systems during the Soviet epoch came the 20 year long period of almost complete deregulation. Currently there is a trend towards the return to the practice of formal urban transport management, which represents a strange mixture of the remnants of the Soviet methods and the selective adoption of western urban planning practices. The chapter highlights the institutional aspects of transportation systems design and functioning. Using the neo-institutional approach, authors analyze urban transportation system management institutions as well as transportation policy of Russian authorities. The presented analysis consists of two levels: macro-level reveals trends at institution design, explains path dependency from the Soviet epoch. The micro-level put the light on the issue of decision design and the influence of certain actors. The clarification of the formal and informal urban transport management requires the overview of the following questions: the interests and the principles of authorities and private operators interaction, practices of transport demand management implementation and public reaction, the evolution of public perception of private and public property. The chapter is organized as follows. The first, introductory part of the chapter is dedicated to explaining the approach and methodological framework used. The second part reveals peculiarities of Soviet transportation system heritage. The third part examines the challenges of 90s period — introduction of free market mechanisms and era of deregulation. Fourth part discusses the experience of the first decade of XXI century and relevant changes in transport system. In the final part authors analyze main institutions; both formal and informal which shape the modern transport system.
The aim of the article is to present the ways of urban public transport development in Russia within the context of the transition towards the market economy. The article consists of two blocks: the trends of urban public transport development in the Russian Federation and the problems of urban public transport management. The first block presents the survey of urban public transport development trends by transport mode with the attention to the mass transit. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of urban public transport in Russian cities since 1991 is provided. The positive and negative cases of urban public transport development are revealed. The most important features of urban public transport functioning connected to the urban planning and transport planning practice are discussed. The second part presents an overview of the main decisions made by public authorities in the field of urban public transport management. The key questions are: the general logic of administration, the role of private transport operators, funding and risks of the market participants. The general conclusions reveal the place of the Russian Federation within the context of world urban transport development trends.
Urban population is growing worldwide. Our societies are facing grand challenges like climate change and growing inequalities between people. There is an increasing need to develop cities that are environmentally and socially sustainable, functional and supporting well-being of their inhabitants. When striving towards these goals, transportation and mobility play a crucial role. Easy and environmentally sustainable mobility options are called for in most cities. For these to attract users, they need to be safe and pleasant, providing positive experiences and well-being in addition to efficiency in time or cost.
NECTAR conference is organized with a title “Towards Human Scale Cities – Open and Happy” to reflect the new requirements of urban transportation. This 15th NECTAR conference, organized in Helsinki 5th - 7th June 2019, provides presentations by world-class keynotes Mikael Colville-Andersen and Professor Tim Schwanen, who approach human scale mobility from the viewpoints of a designer and a researcher. More than 140 scientific presentations explore advancements in the field of transport, communication and mobility, with a particular focus on good quality mobility options for people. The focus of the conference is urban transportation and the new possibilities that open data and digital technologies provide for mobility solutions and their research. Presentations provide food for thought concerning mobility choices and quality, new mobility solutions like MaaS, and policies that are implemented to support them.
Helsinki offers an interesting environment for the 2019 NECTAR conference. It is the home of the busiest passenger harbor in Europe with a twin-city development with Tallinn across the bay, and a major air transportation hub between Europe and Asia. It is one of the fastest growing capital regions in Europe, with large densification developments taking place in old logistic centers: harbor areas of Jätkäsaari and Kalasatama and a train depot in Pasila. Public transportation is valued high by citizens, as well as politicians and planners making investment decisions for the future. First robotized buses are in operation and MaaS solutions are emerging. New bike sharing system is one of the most used in the world and has expanded to cover most of the city region. As everywhere in Europe, new forms of micromobility from electronic scooters to electric longboards are appearing on the streets making planners and police puzzled. The city has profiled itself as an open city: large amounts of open data about the region have been made available and the region of Helsinki is committed to open and transparent decision
and policy making. This supports also research in the major universities: University of Helsinki and Aalto University, the local organizers of the conference.
We anticipate that the conference days will forward our thinking on how to make cities more sustainable, functional and pleasant for people, and how to study them scientifically in a meaningful and transparent manner.
Urban Transport XXI contains the proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Urban Transport and the Environment. The series of annual conferences organised by the Wessex Institute was first held in 1995. Transportation in urban areas, with its related environmental and social impacts, is a topic of significant concern for policymakers in both municipal and central government and for the urban citizens who need effective and efficient transport systems. Urban transport systems require considerable studies to devise and then safeguard their operational use, maintenance and safety. Transportation systems produce significant environmental impacts and can enhance or degrade the quality of life in urban centres. Clearly the challenge of providing effective and efficient transport systems in urban settings remains an acute concern, with financial, political and environmental constraints limiting the ability of transport system planners and operators to deliver the high quality outcomes expected by the public.