Глаголы звуков животных в башкирском и татарском языках
About verba sonandi in turkic langs
This study is an analysis of visual complexity, which is one of the psycholinguistic parameters of the “Verb and Action” and “Noun and Object” stimuli databases. Two measures of visual complexity are investigated: subjectivity and objectivity, as well as their relations to the other database parameters. In the noun database the two parameters show similar patterns; in the verb database there is some divergence in their manifestation. In general, the overall picture of the parameters’ interrelations of the stimuli databases attests their validity.
The paper discusses 10 Old Frisian verbal constructions that can be considered noun-incorporated verbs. Nominal incorporation is wide-spread in Indo-European. In Germanic, nominal incorporation as applied to verbs is not productive as a word-formation tool, except for Frisian. S. Dyk, a linguist and an expert in Frisian, has carried out a comprehensive research on noun-incorporation in Modern Frisian (Dyk 1997). Some incorporated verbs are part of Middle Frisian texts. Yet, as the author states, no words following this word-formation pattern had been attested in Old Frisian. This paper present new data achieved within a PhD-thesis on compounding in Old Frisian (including all the attested lexis, which amounts to ca. 11,750 lemmas). The findings are 10 Old Frisian lexical constructions that might be treated as noun-incorporated (proto-)compounds due to a set of reasons. The arguments for considering these words to be noun-incorporated compounds are: (1) ‘terminological’ specification of their semantics; (2) proven evaluation of this word-formation pattern into a productive and frequent mechanism in Modern Frisian through Middle Frisian. The arguments against considering these words to be noun-incorporated compounds are: (3) no conjugational paradigm present in the actual contexts, i. e. the 10 words occur exclusively as substantivized infinitives and do not function as finite verbs yet; (4) the 10 words are not frequent in terms of being attested in various sources distinguished by chronological, spatial and genre-based criteria. Moreover, the paper discusses some limitations of the words’ possible interpretations, and their formal and semantic features are described. The 10 words are: bon-skelda ‘to impose a fine’, brond-skatta ‘to commit arson’, hēr-plokkia ‘to pull at someone’s hair’, holt-sāgia ‘to cut wood’, hreg-breka ‘to break someone’s back’, mes-lūka ‘to pull a knife’, rēd-slā ‘to give advice’, stēn-drega ‘to carry stones around the town (as a punishment)’, stēn-fēra ‘to move stones’, wax-drāia ‘to produce wax candles’. Semantically, most of the words refer to criminal, legal actions; two of them (‘to cut wood’ and ‘to produce wax candles’) are designations of highly frequent occupational actions. One of them, ‘to give advice’, is well-known for having cognates in other Germanic languages. These meanings might have been rendered through a noun-incorporating pattern for a reason: they denote some actions so frequent and collocational that they were bound to form ‘terminological’ items and develop into a productive ford-formation model.
Verb production has been shown to be impaired in individuals with agrammatic Broca’s aphasia. Several theories linked this deficit to problems with the implementation of grammatical information the verb contains. In particular, the number and the type of arguments associated with a verb were suggested as causes of production difficulties in agrammatic speakers. The influence of these two factors on agrammatic production has earlier been investigated in English and Dutch (Thompson, 2003; Bastiaanse & Van Zonneveld, 2005).
Nearly two thousand perfective verbs in Russian are formed via the addition of so-called "empty prefixes" (čistovidovye pristavki) to imperfective base verbs. The traditional assumption that prefixes are semantically "empty" when used to form aspectual pairs is problematic because the same prefixes are clearly "non-empty" when combined with other base verbs. Though some scholars have suspected that the prefixes are not empty but instead have meanings that overlap with the meanings of the base verbs, proof of this hypothesis has eluded researchers. With the advent of corpora and electronic resources it is possible to explore this question on the basis of large quantities of data. This article presents a new methodology, called "radial category profiling", in which the semantic network of a prefix is established on the basis of its "non-empty" uses and then compared, node by node, with the semantic network of base verbs that use the same prefix as an "empty" perfectivizing morpheme. This methodology facilitates a comprehensive analysis of ten prefixes, comparing their meanings in "non-empty" and "empty" uses and showing precisely how in the latter case overlap produces the illusion of emptiness. We are able to fully specify the semantic network of each prefix, and discover that for some prefixes there is overlap throughout the network, while for others overlap is restricted to a contiguous subsection of the network. We investigate the dynamic interactions among prefixes, and identify what meanings are incompatible with the "purely aspectual" function of the so-called "empty" prefixes. The results of our analyses, including complete lists of verbs, are publicly available at: http://emptyprefixes.uit.no/ and http://emptyprefixes. uit.no/methodology-eng.htm.
The present article introduces a Russian-language database of 375 action pictures and associated verbs with normative data. The pictures were normed for name agreement, conceptual familiarity, and subjective visual complexity, and measures of age of acquisition, imageability, and image agreement were collected for the verbs. Values of objective visual complexity, as well as information about verb frequency, length, argument structure, instrumentality, and name relation, are also provided. Correlations between these parameters are presented, along with a comparative analysis of the Russian name agreement norms and those collected in other languages. The full set of pictorial stimuli and the obtained norms may be freely downloaded from http://neuroling.ru/en/db.htm for use in research and for clinical purposes.