The article analyses Montaigne’s «Les Essais» from the point of view of emblematics and tries to show how emblematic meaning is being constructed in the text. Philological analysis demonstrates how key emblematic features are emphasized within the unique texture of the essays, specifically in chapters of the third book. Based on linguistic and semiotic analysis, the article shows Montaigne’s commitment to emblematic mode of expression. Studying author’s use of exempla, the article establishes its link with Montaigne’s understanding of the word «emblème», as it is uniquely presented in the 9th chapter of the book III. Also, article compares the use of commentaries in the emblem book of Montaigne’s contemporary, Dionysus Lebei-Batilly with Montaigne’s essays, thus showing many common features and differences between the two. Also the use of sententia is being thoroughly analysed in order to show how many of «Essays»’ titles are being explicated as emblematic inscriptiones. Jt js argued that all the typological and functional convergences with emblematics should enable us to speak of the «Essays» as a specimen of emblematic or paraemblematic literature. In the concluding part of the article a unique texture of Montaigne’s narrative is being analysed as an emblematic mode of expression: a number of book’s fragments is presented as a particular «discursive emblem», inevitably deprived of visual means, but demonstrating an emblematic effect nevertheless. With the help of linguistic analysis it is shown that Montaigne intended his work as a specimen of a «mosaic» or an incrustation, whose details form an assembly building up as author’s «emblematic face». Conclusion states that seemingly chaotic text of the «Essays» actually implies existence of the structure, composed thanks to the joints and convergences of special discursive units of emblematic nature.
In the late 1920s — the early 1930s, Shakespeare studies in the Soviet Union were dominated by the method of ‘vulgar sociology’. This official methodology influenced every scholar of literature. One of the key figures in literary studies of the time was Vladimir M. Friche.
A change in attitudes to Shakespeare, caused by the general interest in the heritage of classical authors in the Soviet theater, did not occur until 1934.
The article focuses on the yet little researched interpretation of Shakespeare developed in the 1930s by Sigizmund D. Krzhizhanovsky, and his original position in history and cultural scholarship. In particular, we have for the first time analyzed the transcript of Krzhizhanovsky’s paper devoted to Shakespeare’s chronicles. This document is preserved in Fond No. 52, “Vserosskomdram” at the Department of Manuscripts, Institute of World Literature, Russian Academy of Sciences.
The concept of history which underpins Krzhizhanovsky’s interpretation of Shakespeare’s chron icles can be traced back to the problems of methodology of historical knowledge as advanced by German philosophers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the original interpreters and followers of this approach in Russia were such historians as A. S. LappoDanilevsky, I. M. Grevs and N. P. Antsiferov.
According to Krzhizhanovsky, Shakespeare selected his historical material with an accuracy of a historian. By studying various Shakespearean characters, historical and fictional, Krzhizhanov sky reconstructs the internal structural features of Shakespeare’s chronicles as a textual poetics through analysis and correlation of historical facts and their interpretation both by Shakespeare’s contemporaries and in the author’s imagination. The latter transforms historical facts according to the dramatic canon and creates a fictional world for Shakespeare’s contemporary audience. Krzhizhanovsky argues that, not knowing their own future, spectators are pleased to view themselves as ‘the future’ for historical characters on stage, and to watch the drama of ‘the past’ proceed into the present.
The article deals with the analysis of W.Shakespeare's works in the Internacionalnaya literatura's editorial policy.