Изменение роли Черной Африки в мировой экономике и политике. Социально-экономические сдвиги
Along with the fast growing economy, the term «BRICs» was coined to represent the newly emerging countries — Brazil, Russia, India and China. The enhanced economy in these countries has largely improved peoples life; at the same time, it has also strongly influenced the transformation of social structure, norms and values. However, as the worlds attention centers on their economic development at the micro level, the social changes at the micro level have often been neglected, and a specific comparative study of these four countries is even more rare. This handbooks contributing authors are leading sociologists in the four countries. They fill the gap in existing literature and examine specifically the changes in each society from the perspective of social stratification, with topics covering the main social classes, the inequality of education and income, and the different styles of consumption as well as the class consciousness and values. Under every topic, it gathers articles from authors of each country. Such a comparative study could not only help us achieve a better understanding of the economic growth and social development in these countries, but also lead us to unveil the mystery of how these emerging powers with dramatic differences in history, geography, culture, language, religion and politics could share a common will and take joint action. In general, the handbook takes a unique perspective to show readers that it is the profound social structural changes in these countries that determine their future, and to a large extent, will shape the socio-economic landscape of the future world.
Oleg Budnitskii examines what informed members of the Soviet intelligentsia experienced in Germany from 1944 to 1946. Aside from some contemporaneous accounts, he mainly bases himself on memoirs. Most of these were published only after 1990, so they were no longer held to the triumphalist official line of the late-Soviet era. Accordingly, they could address ambigious and unpleasant experiences.
The article presents the basic results of empirical check of the model of infl uence of valuable heterogeneity of a society on social dynamics. According to the author of the theoretical model (M. Urnov), this infl uence is caused by presence in a society of the groups, being in referential relations, that is relations in which one groups play a role of samples, and others - imitators. Thus the model of an elementary particle of social changes is a certain pair of the social groups connected by the referential relation.
Relying on archives and other little known documents the author analyzes the problems in arranging the ration tickets supplies for various strata of population during World War II and shows the food rationing specifi cs as a part of the social policy of a nation at war.
Based on the data of European Social Survey we made a research of the opinion of the middle class on the welfare and social assistance, the main functions of the state in resolving a number of social issues in different countries with different models of social policy. The results of investigation showed that the population's vision of the role of the government in solution of the social problems, as well as of its general functions is different in various countries. Besides we can speak about a certain difference of attitudes of the middle class and working class regarding the social support program.
social policies, Middle class, working class, Public opinion, welfare
Il Duce declared war against the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, right after Hitler officially notified Rome about the beginning of the Operation Barbarossa. Mussolini’s military department hastily began to form the Expeditionary Italian Corps in Russia (CSIR), which entered the Soviet territory 40 days later. The Italian combatants who survived after the defeat at Stalingrad and the Soviet captivity, left ample memoirs. However, the victims' of the occupation documentary evidence has not been published yet. Domestic archives allow to bridge the gap and show how the Italian military treated the Jewish population.
Strategy and Politics of the Italian Communist Partisan Groups
History of Soviet Jews in World War II: Histories; Representation, Documentation, and Interpretation.