The article shows how the Hamitic hypothesis invented by early European anthropologists was promoted by German and Belgian colonizers and missionaries to explain the native Rwandan society and organize it into pseudo-racial hierarchies under colonial rule, how the colonial ethnicist practices and ideologies resulted in ethnicist consciousness-raising of populations and how the Rwandan post-colonial political regimes supported, instrumentalized and institutionalized them to consolidate their power. The author concludes that these historical developments made the Hamitic hypothesis a significant factor in the Rwandan genocide of 1994.
The article analyzes the role of Christian churches in the Rwandan genocide of 1994, their involvement in organization and carrying out massacres of Tutsis and Hutu opposition. The author also raises the question, how the position taken by the ecclesiastical hierarchy and the behavior of individual priests in April-June 1994 influenced on the prestige and religious dominance of Christian churches in Rwanda.
The application of «protective reservations» is a fundamental principle of modern codifications of the private international law. The post-graduate student of the Private International Law Department, Faculty of Laws, National Research University «The Higher School of Economics», the advocate E.A. Kruty (e-mail: email@example.com) minutely analyses provisions about the reservation about the public policy and mandatory rules which are included in the international acts and ten national codifications of XXI centuries (Azerbaijan, Lithuania, Estonia, Mongolia, Russia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Macedonia, Turkey). Despite the apparent prevalence of the negative construction of the reservation about the public policy the lawmaker prefers in some situations its positive variant. An appeal to codifications allows to identify the certain conditions on which protective reservations take effect. Their most detailed description is contained in the Belgian and Bulgarian codes. Not less interesting is a regulation of the legal consequences coming as a result of application of these legal institutions for private legal relations with a foreign element including in the international civil procedure.