Искусство узнавания или о применении дефиниций при работе с аналогиями (на примере анализа одного образа в памятниках евразийских степей и Ближнего Востока I тыс. до н.э. – I тыс.н.э.)
Result of a Franco-Russian project (CNRS – Russian Academy of Sciences), this publication presents the latest advances of recent research on the Vikings in a multidisciplinary and comparative perspective across Eastern Europe. It proposes a reflection on the dynamics of cultural exchanges analysed as a process of interactions that have traversed ethnic or social groups, countries, religious beliefs and practices, generations, genders. Questions concerning the specificities of these processes and the reciprocal transformations of Scandinavian settlements and local societies (Frankish, Anglo-Saxon, Slavic, Finnish) are posed. A large part is devoted to the actors involved in these changes (elites, merchants, ecclesiastics, artisans, women, skalds, historiographers...), and the places or areas where they took place. This publication thus participates to the broader reflection on the notions discussed concerning acculturation, cultural transfers and the “middle ground” whose heuristic interest goes far beyond the phenomenon of Scandinavian expansion during the Viking era
During the Revolutionary War, women applied their traditional skills they learned as homemakers to espionage work. Often at great peril they secretly provided critical intelligence data to military and civilian leaders. There were several women in the Setauket Spy Ring that operated during revolution and kept general Washington supplied with information regarding the movements of the British troops in New York and Long Island.
Article dedicated to the women's participation in supplying of Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. Association of American women collected money, clothing and provisions helping troops to survive the crisis moments in the war life.
The collection contains materials of the international scientific-practical conference. The book outlines current issues of the archeology of Kazakhstan and adjacent territories. The collection is addressed to archaeologists, ethnographers, historians and local historians.
This paper considers concrete manifestations of the multilinearity of politogenesis and the variation of its forms; it analyzes the main causes that determined the politogenetic pathway of a given society. The respective factors include the polity's size, its ecological and social environment. The politogenesis should be never reduced to the only evolutionary pathway leading to the statehood. The early state formation was only one of many versions of development of complex late archaic social systems. The author designates various complex non-state political systems as early state analogues.
The early state analogue posed a real alternative to the state for a rather long period of time, whereas in many ecologically marginal regions they could compete quite seriously with the state sometimes until recently. Thus, it was only in the final count that the state became the leading form of political organization of complex societies. The very pathways to statehood had a few versions. One may group them into two main types: ‘vertical’ and ‘horizontal’. Within the ‘vertical’ model the state formation took place in a direct way, i.e. directly from small pre-state polities to primitive statehood. Within the ‘horizontal’ model we first observe the formation of early state analogues that were quite comparable to the state as regards to their complexity, whereas later those analogues were transformed into states.
Sculpture has always been a purely masculine matter. However, history has known a number of women’s names in this art. One of them is Patience Lowell Wright (1725–1786). She molded her figures out of wax since childhood. After the death of her husband,to earn a living for herself and her children, she turned a hobby into a job. In the 17th century, the activities of professional sculptors in America were limited to the production of tombstones and nose pieces for ships. Patience’s sister showed how to model life-size figures. Patience decided to specialize in creating images of outstanding contemporaries. In short, a traveling exhibition (the first in the US) of figures of famous public figures was created. Two years later, the number of figures was enough to organize two permanent exhibitions in Philadelphia and New York. But on June 3, 1771, a fire destroyed many of her works and she decided to move to London. Owing to the patronage of Benjamin Franklin, she was quickly accepted into London society. She made many famous British figures including Th. Penn, Ch. Fox, W. Pitt, C. Macaulay. She had a friendly relationship even with the royal couple, but only before the start of the Independence War. The sculptor openly sided with the colonists. It is believed that she even sent spy information,hidden in her figures, to the members of the Continental Congress. Another sphere of Wright’s activities was the liberation of American prisoners that started with the “Platt Case”. After the struggle for independence resulted in an open conflict, Wright’s business declined sharply. Left without a job in 1780, she went to Paris, hoping to open a new wax studio. By making a bust of Franklin, she tried to find a way to Parisian society, but failed. In 1782, she returned to London and began writing to American leaders, including G. Washington and Th. Jefferson, for permission to make their models. By 1785, she decided to return to New Jersey. However, when preparing for the departure, she fell and broke her leg. A week later, on March 23, 1786, she died. Her sister Rachel was trying to get financial assistance from prominent Americans and the Continental Congress to pay for her burial, but to no avail. Ultimately, P. Wright was buried in London, and her place of burial is unknown now.
The collection contains materials of reports sent to participate in the V International Scientific Conference, held in Aktobe on 6-7 October 2016, dedicated to the complex of events dedicated to the 25th anniversary of Independence Republic of Kazakhstan. The conference is named after the famous Kazakh archaeologist World Kasymovich Kadyrbaeva, who made a great contribution to the study of history and culture Western Kazakhstan. The existing long-standing and strong contacts with the representatives of research centers and Russian museums, Uzbekistan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine received reflected in the materials sent by a wide chronological and thematic range. Proceedings of the conference will be of interest to archaeologists, ethnographers, historians, teachers and students, and anyone interested in the history and culture of Eurasia
This article is about legendary maker of the first American flag. According to family tradition, she made flag of stars and stripes in early June 1776 for a secret committee consisting of G. Washington, R. Morris and G. Ross. Although this fact is undocumented her identity is well established in public, government and historical records.