It is with great pleasure that we present the proceedings of the first international conference on the history and archaeology of Central Asia in Bordeaux. This conference was also the first international event focusing on Ancient Chorasmia, an occasion to put this too-often disregarded Eastern Iranian polity back on the map. Today this is more necessary than ever, in light of the most recent discoveries of the Karakalpak-Australian Expedition (KAE) at the site of Akchakhan-kala and on the Sultan-uiz-dag range that are completely reshaping our understanding of the art, religion and history of this region south of the Aral Sea.
The article is deмoted to intricacies of formation of the European intellectual elite in the Turkestan region of imperial Russia(after 1865). It is viewed through the lens of institutional development, consolidation, extinction and revival of popular science circles andsocieties. Specifcs of revival of popular science societies under the Soviet regime is also addressed by the author. Besides that, the paper deals with attitudes of political regime towards circles and societiesduring the imperial period and under the Soviets; with how authoritiesinteracted with the intellectual elite of the region; with specifics of involvement of European intelligentsia into the rise of higher educationin Turkestan as well as building up of archival service and institutionsfor the protection of historical and cultural heritage of the region.
The origin of native Americans is one of the most intriguing issues in world history. This article presents a synthesis of environmental, geological, archaeological, biological, linguistic, and folkloric evidence relevant to this issue as well as facts concerning prehistoric art. The totality of data indicates an Asian homeland situated anywhere from the Altai-Sayan to eastern China.