Organizational Changes in Russian Industrial Enterprises: Mutation of Decision-Making Structures and Transformations of Ownership
The aim of this study was the diagnosis of the causes of psychological and organizational barriers of the personnel’s resistance to changes. We used a standardized interview method based on a questionnaire developed by the authors. The respondents were thirty HR-managers of Nizhny Novgorod business companies representing different sectors of the economy. The study showed that the resistance of the personnel to changes has a medium intensity and a passive form. The resultsrevealed that the leading role in the resistance of personnel to changes play individual psychological causes and organizational barriers. It is found that among individual psychological causes, inertia has the greatest impact on the resistance of personnel to changes, and in the second place, there is the fear of negative consequences of the changes. HR-managers are actively involved in the management of organizational change, including overcoming the resistance of the personnel to changes. To overcome the psychological causes of resistance of personnel HR-managers use "soft" methods of interpersonal influence: teaching, explanation and psychological support, and to overcome organizational barriers –administrative methods.
Current technological innovations and market are increasingly reflected in the internal environment of many organizations. Adaptation of a company's internal aspects to the new market conditions has become the time feature. It should be noted that today's organizations are a complex network of individual and group interests. Organizational culture is the principle feature characterizing any (in our case, private) manufacturing plant. The research shows that organizational culture is conservative; however, it can adjust to changes in the internal and external environment. This paradox could be explained by the fact that organizational culture may exist in the minds of people who are able to adapt to the new situation but hardly change their beliefs. Analysis of the existing theoretical approaches and management practices in the field of organizational culture has allowed the authors to form a semantic field, which reflects interpretation of organizational culture and defines the purpose, nature and tools of managerial influence. The semantic field has its own specific strengths and limitations which can be used to maximize the company's profit. Thus, organizational culture of an enterprise is believed to be based on diversity or sometimes discrepancy of stakeholders' interests, assuming that in the context of organizational culture these interests are interdependent, since meeting one party's interests cannot be fully achieved when ignoring those of the other party. Hence a group of people expressing certain involvement can affect the balance of power and achieve their goals, pursuing their own interests. Such interdependence, different balance of power in decision-making on the nature and dynamics of organizational culture, availability of potential conflicts of stakeholders' interests, involved in this process and, finally, scarce resources of an enterprise tend to reinforce this influence on organizational behavior and organizational culture. The authors interpret organizational culture in terms of stakeholder theory and identified the four main positions of the stakeholders in the matrix describing stakeholders' influence and participation in organizational culture: Constitutive Stakeholders, Key Stakeholders, Adynamic Stakeholders, Extirpated Stakeholders. Besides, Influence, Involvement, Reception were specified as relevant attributes of stakeholders. It enables us to develop the method of detecting critical subjects, whose interests must be respected when forming the content-related configuration of organizational culture; critical issue is not how organizations should be built to maximize efficiency, but rather whose preferences and interests should be served by an organization. In this article the authors examine organizational culture in the context of coincidence or intersection of company stakeholders' interests. In view of this, the principle theoretical aspects of organizational culture and the stakeholder theory have been studied. The analysis of research into these problems has been used to identify stakeholder groups and develop the methods of their determination.
The Management by Values (MBV) approach has been growing in popularity in countries with developed economies since the late 1990s. Considered to be a strategic management tool, this approach seeks to increase the company's market value by enhancing interconnections among employees. Until recently, this model of firm management and HR management in particular, has been used on a very limited scale in emerging markets. This paper presents the results of the research of contemporary management issues in Russia with a particular focus on the MBV approach. The logic of the paper is based on five main research tasks, namely: the analysis of global organizational tendencies with respect to internal and external environments; a survey of the evolution of the major management concepts; analysis of main characteristics of management approaches MBI, MBO and MBV; research of core management values underlining business behavior and corporate culture in Russian companies, as well as study of limits for the application of MBV approach in Russia.