Опыт создания стандартизированного теста для оценки речи при афазии
There is a need for modern neurolinguisitcstandardized test for language assessment in aphasia and related neurogenic language disorders in Russian. Our research group is currently working on the development of the Russian Aphasia Test (RAT)that is based on contemporary models of language processing and principles of psychometrics.Language production subtests assess oral speech at each of the linguistic levels. The material for each task was selected and balanced considering modern theoretical models of language and takes into account important psycholinguistic factors. For many tasks, there is no standardized analogues in Russian with extensive, theoretically justified and carefully selected linguistic material. The subtests were piloted in a group of neurologically healthy individuals (n=20) and patients with different types of aphasia (n=20). As expected patients with aphasia performed worse compared to age-matched healthy controls across all tasks. Items demonstrating high sensitivity and reliability were selected to be included in the final version of the test.
Abstract. There is currently a great need for modern, standardized neuropsychological tests for language assessment in Russian speakers with aphasia. Our group is working on the development of the Russian Aphasia Test (RAT). Within the scope of this work, two subtests for single-word comprehension of nouns and verbs were developed considering contemporary models of language processing and principles of psychometrics. The task for both subtests was spoken word-to-picture matching. The subtests were normed on individuals with aphasia (n = 45) and a control group (n = 30). This resulted in the final set of 30 diagnostic trials for nouns and verbs matched on relevant psychometric properties which are sensitive to language impairments for both fluent and non-fluent types of aphasia. This set of trials will be included in the final version of the RAT.
The goal of the present study was to investigate event-related potential (ERP) responses to Dutch negative and positive polarity adverbs of degree presented in licensed and unlicensed contexts with negative and affirmative particles directly preceding the polarity item. To control for effects of the processing of negation as such, neutral adverbs were also presented in negative and affirmative contexts. The results did not show any significant effect of negation for the non-polar adverbs, allowing context effects for polarity items to be interpreted as being due to the appropriateness of the context. Negative polarity violations elicited an N400 response that might reflect the lack of semantic congruity of the negative polarity item in an affirmative context. In contrast, processing positive polarity items in context of negation resulted in a positive effect resembling the P600, which may be considered as a marker of a different sort of integration difficulty caused by violation of licensing conditions and/or a search for a licensor in the wider discourse context. The study presented here is the first to show an unambiguous dissociation between responses to negative and positive polarity violations. This dissociation argues for different mechanisms underlying the processing of these two types of polarity; we propose that positive polarity items are sensitive to wider discourse context, while negative polarity items are more sensitive to local lexical context.