Компаративное источниковедение как метод сравнительно-исторического исследования
Comparative source study considered as a method of comparative-historical research, based on theoretical understanding of the basic classification unit of source study – types of historical sources as representations of the forms of social human activities, the totality of which represents the culture system.
Across the industrialized world, more couples are living together without marrying. Although researchers have compared cohabitation cross-nationally using quantitative data, few have compared union formation using qualitative data. OBJECTIVE We use focus group research to compare social norms of cohabitation and marriage in Australia and nine countries in Europe. We explore questions such as: what is the meaning of cohabitation? To what extent is cohabitation indistinguishable from marriage, a prelude to marriage, or an alternative to being single? Are the meanings of cohabitation similar across countries?
The paper deals with multilevel regression modelling (MLM) as a method preferred to the ordinary least-squares regression in the analysis of comparative data with hierarchical data structure. We present substantive reasons (contextual sources of heterogeneity, causal heterogeneity, and generalisability of results) and statistical reasons (obtaining more precise and reliable estimates) for multilevel modelling. We also provide an overview of MLM implementation in several statistical packages. Using the cross-national World Values Survey (WVS) data, we outline a step-by-step procedure for building and fitting a two-level linear regression model of generalized trust on educational attainment levels (the “null” model, the fixed-intercept model, the random-intercept model, the random-intercept random-slope model, the model with a country-level predictor, and the cross-level interaction model). Then we describe and compare existing goodness-of-fit measures for MLM (AIC, BIC, maximum likelihood functions, and pseudo-R2). We also demonstrate robustness check techniques for multilevel models (visualization, Cook’s distance, and DFBETAs). In the final section, we overview alternative approaches to multilevel modelling when dealing with hierarchical data (cluster robust standard errors, generalized estimating equations, country fixed effects, country means, and aggregation) as currently practiced in comparative cross-national social science research. The replicable R code is attached.
Traced the formation and transformation of disciplinary status of the source study. Discovered the meaning of basic concepts of source study: a historical source, the system of types of historical sources, the empirical reality of the historical world. Considered the problem of the classification of historical sources.
Analyzed the specific structure of the sources of the Russian history of XVIII – early XX century. Described the features of the complex of historical sources of the modern period.
The article deals with representations of Mikhail Gorbachev, last leader of the USSR, in
textbooks on the history of three Post-Soviet countries: Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. The
personality of Gorbachev is seen in the wider framework of attitudes to the “late Soviet” and its
embedding in three histories based on the official discourses. The results of historical textbook
analysis show the ambiguity and diversification of these attitudes reflected in three “faces” of
Gorbachev changing with the pace of perestroika. It is seen that negative attitudes to the personality
of Gorbachev are connected to his representations within the framework of Machiavelist elite
theories and general fight for power, with certain manifest or latent nostalgia for the Soviet past.
The case of Ukraine is the most in contrast with a positive evaluation of Gorbachev’s personality
and activities in comparison to Russia and Belarus.
We compare the implementations and practices of open government and open government data in Mexico, Russia, and the US using a set of common concepts focused on policy environment and context. After providing thumbnail sketches of each country, we consider how variations among the countries are relate to context-specific historical problems, policies and politics From there we comment on the prospects for the institutionalization of open government and open data in each country.