Рынок труда и политика на рынке труда
Non-renewable fixed-term contracts are becoming more used instead of the traditional Russian model of open-ended employment. The authors examine the influence of institutional and organizational factors on the use of fixed-term contracts in Russia with data from a Sur-vey covering 3313 enterprises for the years 2009 to 2011. Probit and Tobit regressions are used to test several hypotheses about the use of fixed-term contracts derived from the litera-ture. The results indicate that state-owned and unionized enterprises are more likely to use fixed-term contracts; and a high level of perceived dismissal protection for permanent work-ers is positively associated with fixed-term contracts use. The incidence and intensity of fixed-term contracts are lower at enterprises with flexible wages. A significant impact of or-ganizational factors is confirmed for fixed-term contracts. Enterprises use less fixed-term contracts, if they have workers with tenure from 5 to 10 years and high job complexity.
Work schedule structures individual life and matches biological and social rhythms in various ways. Given the widespread prevalence of nonstandard work schedules (such as working evenings, nights and weekends) in the context of the '24 / 7 economy', the need for research into how these schedules affect worker well-being, including the issues of work-life balance, has never been greater. It is difficult for a person working in evenings, nights or weekends to spend enough time with friends, acquaintances and relatives, actively participate in social events, share family ceremonies and rituals, and keep up the traditions that are important for maintaining social relations. This study is the first attempt to estimate the occurrence and effects of nonstandard work schedules in Russia, using the data of European Social Survey (5th round). About two-thirds of Russian workers work evenings, nights or weekends and this is one of the highest figures among European countries. Regression models reveal that nonstandard work schedules have negative effects on perceived work-life balance. Indeed, it appears that working several times a month or even once a month on weekends in the evening or at night is enough to bring about a deterioration in the work-life balance. Although the results of many studies suggest that the negative effects of non-standard work schedules manifest themselves differently depending on gender and family characteristics, in this study we did not confirm that gender and presence of children moderate the effects of non-standard work schedules on work-life balance. The academic community and government bodies should pay more attention to nonstandard work schedules, which can generate serious social problems. Further research should include a wider variety of indicators of health and subjective well-being, as applied to various categories of Russian workers.
Over the past decade Russia has experienced stable economic growth with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growing by 7 percent per year from 1998 to 2007. While the nation still enjoys a relatively healthy growth rate, analysis shows that the sources for the future growth are limited and to boost growth Russia should rely on increasing labor productivity. Improving productivity will impose new demands on Russia's workforce requiring better skills to satisfy the needs of economy growth. The international business environment survey reports that Russia's private sector considers the lack of skills and education of workers to be the most severe constraint on its expansion and growth. Despite the very high level of formal education attained by Russian workers the problem behind this may be explained by the current quality and content of education, which does not develop the necessary skills and competences demanded by the labor market. This report examines the reasons and the consequences of this skills deficit, which constrain productivity and limits innovation ultimately stifling accelerated economic growth in Russia. The objectives of the report are: 1) to deepen the understanding of the structure and composition of this skills deficit by analyzing in detail the demand for and supply of particular cognitive and non-cognitive skills; 2) to review the capacity and problems of the current systems for skills provision in Russia both through the public and private provision thereby identifying some of the underlying reasons for this skills gap; and 3) to support the development of evidence-based policy making in professional education and training, which will lead to a system better responding to the challenges of the economy and labor market.
Though foreign language is widely accepted as an important form of human capital and a factor of economic growth, the labour market outcomes for foreign language skills in developing economies remain understudied. This research explores the returns to different levels of foreign language skills in the Russian labour market and tries do disentangle the differences in return associated with job characteristics.
Based on a representative Russian survey data (RLMS-HSE) for 2008-2017, this study adopts several Mincer type models, adding controls for job characteristics, which are estimated using Ordinary Least Squares technique. By providing separate estimates for various professional groups, this research addresses the heterogeneity of returns which are associated with job characteristics.
The results indicate positive wage premium for foreign language skills in Russia which approximately equals to 9% when controlling for job-related characteristics. Moreover, wage premium for advanced level of knowledge reaches 24%. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the economic returns across age groups, levels of education, and occupations. The highest return to foreign language skills is obtained by managers and results to be 13%. For elementary occupations the estimate appears to be insignificant which proves that return to foreign language exists only for a limited number of specific jobs