Эффекты конгруэнтности и комплементарности при восприятии эмоциональных лиц: анализ про- и антисаккад.
Approximately twenty years ago, Laurent Itti and Christof Koch created a saliency map of visual attention in an attempt to recreate the work of biological pyramidal neurons by mimicking neurons with centre-surround receptive fields. The Saliency Model launched many studies that contributed to the understanding of layers of vision and the sphere of visual attention. The aim of the current study is to create an artificial network that is able to learn to generate saccades similar to a human being, but with more accurate prediction and in a more biologically plausible way as compared to the Saliency Model. The methods of the current study will use a similar Leaky Integrate and Fire layer, but will replace salience map creation with a Restricted Boltzmann Machine in order to create a generative model that is biologically precise for both spatial and temporal output. The initial results of the study involve a Restricted Boltzmann Machine able to generate eye movements based on general temporal and spatial parameters of saccadic eye movements from a twodimensional array dataset as input. The results imply that salience modelling can be improved by matching of spatial and temporal distributions of the model to spatial and temporal distributions of human participants.
Linguistic problems of individuals with agrammatic aphasia are not solely restricted to the grammatical domain: a considerable delay in lexical processing was also found in this clinical population (Prather et al., 1997). It was suggested that language processing abilities of aphasic individuals is predictable from their working memory (WM) capacities (Caspari et al., 1998; Friedmann & Gvion, 2003; Wright & Fergadiotos, 2012), however experimental evidence for that is still sparse.
The goal of the present study was to investigate the time course of lexical ambiguity resolution in healthy individuals and patients with agrammatism as a function of their WM span. We hypothesized that patients’ poorer than overall normal performance could at least partly be explained by their reduced WM capacities. Specifically, patients and healthy low WM span individuals were expected to demonstrate similar processing strategies.
Working memory (WM) is essential to auditory comprehension; thus, understanding of the nature of WM is vital to research and clinical practice to support people with aphasia. A key challenge in assessing WM in people with aphasia is related to the myriad deficits prevalent in aphasia, including deficits in attention, hearing, vision, speech, and motor control of the limbs. Eye-tracking methods augur well for developing alternative WM tasks and measures in that they enable researchers to address many of the potential confounds inherent in tasks traditionally used to study WM. Additionally, eye-tracking tasks allow investigation of trade-off patterns between storage and processing in complex span tasks, and provide on-line response measures. The goal of the study was to establish concurrent and discriminative validity of a novel eye movement WM task in individuals with and without aphasia. Additionally, we aimed to explore the relationship between WM and general language measures, and determine whether trade-off between storage and processing is captured via eye-tracking measures. Participants with (n=28) and without (n=32) aphasia completed a novel eye movement WM task. This task, incorporating natural response requirements, was designed to circumvent potential confounds due to concomitant speech, motor, and attention deficits. The task consisted of a verbal processing component intermixed with presentation of colors and symbols for later recall. Performance on this task was indexed solely via eye movements. Additionally, participants completed a modified listening span task that served to establish concurrent validity of the eye-tracking WM task. Performance measures of the novel eye movement WM task demonstrated concurrent validity with another established measure of WM capacity – the modified listening span task. Performance on the eye-tracking task discriminated effectively between participants with and without aphasia. No consistent relationship was observed between WM scores and Western Aphasia Battery aphasia quotient and subtest scores for people with aphasia. Additionally, eye tracking measures yielded no trade-off between processing and storage for either group of participants. Results support the feasibility and validity of employing a novel eye-tracking method to index WM capacity in participants with and without aphasia. Further research is required to determine the nature of the relationship between WM, as indexed through this method, and specific aspects of language impairments in aphasia.