Text Classification into Abstract Classes Based on Discourse Structure
The problem of classifying text with respect to belonging to a document or a metadocument is formulated and its application areas are proposed. An algorithm is proposed for document classification tasks where counts of words isinsufficient do differentiate between such abstract classes of text as metalanguage and object-level. We extend the parse tree kernel method from the level of individual sentences towards the level of paragraphs, based on anaphora, rhetoric structure relations and communicative actions linking phrases in different sentences. Tree kernel learning technique is applied to these extended trees to leverage of additional discourse-related information. We evaluate our approach in the domain of action-plan documents.
The paper traces the very different contours of Soviet discourses of Arctic in the Stalinists
1930s with their narrative transformation of Arctic space into integral part of national Soviet
space. The goal is to see how the Arctic narrative developed and evolved throughout the last
30/40 years of the Soviet era.
The goals of research on conceptual metaphor in discourse are at present remarkably multifaceted, from describing specific social, pragmatic, rhetorical, aesthetic, and discursive functions in real discourse data, through assessing metaphor entrenchment in the cultural and conceptual system, to identification methods as well as criteria for metaphorical mapping description and classification. The volume the reader is about to explore provides a broad panorama of perspectives tackling diverse aspects of metaphor analysis, including a wide range of topics such as the levels of source domain knowledge configuration, new Metaphor analysis in discourse. Introduction 7 target domain knowledge, conscious usage, metaphor identification procedures, communicative functions, linguistic metaphor, visual modes of metaphorical expression, corpus processing, trans-modal metaphor, among others. One of the assets of this collective work consists in showing how the scrutiny of metaphorical connections in multimodal discourse reveals the conceptual nature of metaphorical thinking. The book is organized in three parts, each one focussing on certain aspects of metaphor analysis in discourse. The first part emphasizes the description and characterization of metaphorical knowledge. The chapters offer a view on knowledge configurations like image schemas, frames, scenarios and domains that configure particular kinds of discourse and knowledge. The second part puts the stress on communicative aspects, particularly on the analysis of author/speaker intentionality and the tools to measure intention and effect in metaphor usage. Finally, the third block in the volume delves into the intricacies of disclosing metaphorical codes in non-linguistic modes of semiosis, be it cartoons, film, or other visual media.
Environmental protest has become the main form of political protest in Russia in 2018-2019. The decision to open a landfill for waste disposal at Shies station in the Arkhangelsk region caused dissatisfaction of residents with the policies of regional elites and strengthened the position of environmental protest in the whole country. In the article we identify the politicization of environmental discourse using the case of the landfill at Shies. We show how the political decision of the authorities, which was excluded from the public discussion and competing discourses, has led to the dominant discourse construction of an environmental problem as a political one among citizens. Based on 19 semi-structured interviews with residents of the Arkhangelsk region we conclude that the politicization of environmental discourse and high political mobilization occurred due to three main mechanisms that worked simultaneously. Citizens assess the decision as illegitimate, unfair and attributed responsibility to certain political leaders.
This overview of social constructionism begins with a consideration of the influential work of Malcolm Spector and John I. Kitsuse, whose book, “Constructing Social Problems”, inspired a wide variety of studies addressing how social problems are “constructed”. Ensuing epistemological and methodological controversies are discussed, and three key scholarly works are reviewed for the insights they offer into exemplary analytic practice in a constructionist vein. The exemplars pivot around the notion that “understanding understandings” is essential to executing constructionist analysis and does not entail subscribing to reified conceptions of objective conditions. The chapter concludes by discussing three promising directions for extending the constructionist purview, namely, through the study of (1) cyberspace (including social media) as an emerging but essential venue for the construction of social problems; (2) claims-making in national contexts beyond the Anglo Global North, especially in countries that challenge the liberal democratic assumptions upon which constructionist scholarship usually rests; and (3) a broadened, more quotidian conception of the social spaces and forms through which social problems-related expression is advanced.
The Discourse-Analysis Round Table "D-ART" is an international project based on the Round Table discussion format and thus can be viewed as a collective reflection and construction of the ways that contemporary linguistics in Eastern Europe and beyond implies studying such a macro-level unit as discourse. At the same time, collective reflection does not prevent individual voices from being represented to the benefit of discussion and grounding in the field. The genres of the contributions to the volumes vary from theoretical studies, research and opinion articles to individual researchers’ insights and reflections. This variety is aimed at giving an opportunity to a new linguistic field – the Linguistics of Discourse – so that it may be represented from different angles and with different focal points. As a result, these approaches will become grounded and balanced within the frameworks existing in the region and in the world at large. That is, the series is focused on giving a relatively unknown group of scholars who are engaged in a seri- ous research process an opportunity to express themselves and present their research.
Volume 2: Current approaches in Eastern Europe, edited by Yana Kuzmina, Irina Oukhvanova, Alena Savich and Ekaterina Vasilenko, continues to develop the phenomena of discourse and discourse analysis. 40 participants from Belarus, Czech Republic, Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine discuss the field from theoretical, methodological, phenomenological and activity-biased perspectives actual for the region. The researchers disclose what discourse studies underline conceptually, what discourse analysis entails, and what results can be yielded applying it as a theoretical framework and as a method. A special attention is paid to the field’s heritage coming with the names of Wittgenstein and Florensky. Alongside there come numerous foci on applied aspects of discourse linguistics, such as the worldviews reconstructed out of contemporary and ancient discourses, hybrid discourse included, national election anti-campaigns and an e-government communication studied to find the core of effectiveness, social subject constructed by personal and community-bias discourses, etc. All together, the authors expand upon the question of the field’s place in the humanities and its role for the contemporary society.
The goal of the present study was to investigate speech comprehension in patients with left or right temporal epilepsy at three language levels: single words, sentences and discourse. According to the results, no difference was found between patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and healthy Russian speakers in single word comprehension. However, patients with temporal lobe epilepsy showed significant difficulties in sentence and discourse comprehension as compared to the control group, irrespective of lateralization of the epileptogenic focus. The two groups of patients did not differ in speech comprehension at any language level. The observed results may be related to the involvement of both temporal lobes in language processing and to the decline in other cognitive abilities in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.