The Organization of Pomor Hunting Expeditions to Spitsbergen in the 18th Century
The paper is focused on the practical issues connected to the organization of Russian hunting expeditions to Spitsbergen in the 18th century including some administrative regulation of Spitsbergen shipping. Using the wide range of archival materials, the authors study the social status and geographical origin of organizers and participants of Spitsbergen hunting.
This article analyzes grass-root politics in the Russian Civil War, challenging the traditional assumption that the Bolsheviks with their program of radical revolutionary change enjoyed greater popularity than their White adversaries. On the example of the Northern region, it demonstrates that the local «counter-revolutionary» government commanded considerable sympathies of the provincial population. This popularity was based on the government's ability to supply the population of this non-agricultural province with imported grain, to provide military protection and arms for self-defense. Ultimately, the article strives to explain the outcome of the Civil War not by conflicting ideologies and policies, but by practical circumstances and local factors that on a grass-root level conditioned changing political loyalties.
This article examines popular participation in the anti-bolshevik movement in Arkhangel’sk province of the Russian North during the first months of the Civil War. Using the example of local administration, mobilisation and bread supply it demonstrates how the particularities of the revolution in the province influenced the growth of the White movement and how people were able partly to adjust the anti-bolshevik regime to their own needs. It thus shifts the traditional scholarly focus from the bolshevik-controlled centre to the Russian periphery, and from elite party politics to the role of population in shaping the White regime.
The paper deals with one of the first enterprise-monopolist, this establishment marked the starting point of the era in the history of Russian marine harvesting known as «The time of monopolies». This company established in 1703 and since the next year got control over the blubber trade in the Russian North. Alexander Menshikov being one of the major shareholders gave his name to the monopoly. The paper explores the market and hunting activities of the company, organizational structure and the interrelations between the shareholders and the personnel. The special role of the administrative support in order to prevent illegal blubber trade in the financial success of the company deserves special attention
Agli occhi di molti contemporanei e storici della Guerra civile russa il movimento bianco è stato un affare delle élites dei passati imperi che non avevano capito e accettato la rivoluzione. I bianchi desideravano il ritorno della Russia di un tempo. Ma è davvero andata così? Verso che cosa tendevano in realtà i governi bianchi? In che modo controllarono il territorio e mobilitarono i propri eserciti? Quale fu l’atteggiamento della popolazione nei confronti dei governi bianchi e delle unità di spedizione dell’Intesa che intervennero in loro sostegno? E perché gli abitanti delle regioni russe spesso combatterono insieme ai bianchi contro i bolscevichi? La ricerca di Liudmila G. Novikova, dedicata alla storia della Regione antibolscevica del nord, tenta di rispondere a queste domande: basata su materiali di archivio russi e stranieri, rivolge particolare attenzione ai paradossi politici del movimento bianco e alla lotta dei bianchi in provincia, che in misura significativa determinò il corso e le sorti della Guerra civile russa.
The article “The Masonry Architecture of Kargopol’ in the Early 18th Century” deals with one of many regional architectural traditions of Russia in the 18th century. Only three churches were built in Kargopol’ in this period, and they have never been subject of detailed research. The only surviving building the katholikon of Oshevensk monastery (1707–1734) is the key artifact. The author argues, that the church receives very sophisticated composition due to desire of its founders to copy the architectural forms of the famous Solovki monastery. The second church, that of the Spasski monastery (1707–1717), located in the town of Kargopol’, is now destroyed and only can be seen on some old photos. These photos were discovered in the archive by the author and were published for the first time in this article. Unfortunately, we have no images of the third, Uspenski church in Kargopol’ (1715–1730) which was also destroyed. Its forms are roughly described on the basis of archive documents. The author concludes, the Kargopol’ architecture is unique because it is the most conservative one in the early 18th century Russia. The buildings still represent Post-Byzantine tradition some 30 years after the introduction of European Mannerist and Baroque forms into Russian architecture.