ФМРТ-исследование называния действий при афазии
We investigated brain organization of action naming and its relation to brain damage localization and naming scores in patients with aphasia. Nineteen healthy people and 6 individuals with aphasia participated in an fMRI experiment. They had to name a picture of an action with a single verb or to utter a pseudo-verb in response to a digitally distorted picture. Patients with the damage to the left frontal areas, where normative activation was found in the healthy group, had the lowest naming scores. Higher naming scores in individuals with aphasia was found related to a generalized activation in the left hemisphere.
The volume addresses the issue of verbs valencies as they are reflected in grammatical descriptions as well as dictionaries. It contains a variety of contributions on Slavic languages which tackle both theoretical and practical problems of valencies, actants, argument and event structure of verbs.
This paper aims to demonstrate some clue difficulties of meaning and naming problem in two contrasting approaches: descriptivism and causal theory of reference and then suggests another option which descends to structural linguistics. Due to the structural point of view the author tries to clarify some underlined causes of this two approaches`s argument which is still in process. According to structural version the meaning is not a self-identical entity and therefore it is nor a name, neither a description.
This book is a study of the Russian subjunctive and the grammatical uses of the subjunctive particle бы (б). The author adopts a broad view of the Russian subjunctive and provides a unified account of uses of by with the morphological past alongside uses with the infinitive and predicatives, grouping all of these types into center and periphery. Dobrushina provides a detailed analysis of the subjunctive in the main as well as in a wide range of dependent clauses, including relative, conditional, concessive-conditional, purpose and complement clauses, basing the study on quantitative data obtained from the Russian National Corpus. The Russian subjunctive is compared to the category of irrealis in a wider typological context.
An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc.), but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten, or Turkish korkmak 'fear, be afraid' and korkutmak 'frighten, scare', or Finnish istua 'sit' and istutta 'seat (someone)', or Spanish sentarse 'sit down' and sentar 'seat (someone)' is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where 'seat' is derived from 'sit' by addition of a suffix-is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.
An increased propensity for risk taking is a hallmark of adolescent behavior with significant health and social consequences. Here, we elucidated cortical and subcortical regions associated with risky and risk-averse decisions and outcome evaluation using the Balloon Analog Risk Task in a large sample of adolescents (n=256, 56% female, age 14 ± 0.6), including the level of risk as a parametric modulator. We also identified sex differences in neural activity. Risky decisions engaged regions that are parts of the salience, dorsal attention, and frontoparietal networks, but only the insula was sensitive to increasing risks in parametric analyses. During risk-averse decisions, the same networks covaried with parametric levels of risk. The dorsal striatum was engaged by both risky and risk-averse decisions, but was not sensitive to escalating risk. Negative-outcome processing showed greater activations than positive-outcome processing. Insula, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, middle, rostral, and superior frontal areas, rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex were activated only by negative outcomes, with a subset of regions associated with negative outcomes showing greater activation in females. Taken together, these results suggest that safe decisions are predicted by more accurate neural representation of increasing risk levels, whereas reward-related processes play a relatively minor role.