Когнитивная наука в Москве: новые исследования (16 июня 2015 г.)
The goal of the present research is to design and test a method for studying object and action naming in patients with gliomas as well as to examine how mental representations for nouns and verbs correlate with the localization of tumor in the brain. The investigation is conducted in Russian. It compares patients’ scores on the test before and after glioma resection. It is shown that before the surgery, patients with tumors in the temporal lobe make more naming mistakes for both objects and actions than patients with tumors in the frontal lobe. After the surgery, response accuracy for verbs and nouns in the “frontal” group remains relatively high, while object naming deteriorates significantly in the group of patients with gliomas in the temporal lobe.
There is great need for modern neuropsychological standardized tests for language assessment in aphasia in Russian. Our group is working on the development of the Russian Aphasia Test (RAT), Here we provide data on standardization of the subtests for single-word comprehension of actions and objects. The task for the both subtests was a word-picture matching task. The subtests were normed on people with aphasia and the control group. This resulted in the final set of 30 diagnostic trails for actions and objects matched on relevant psychometric properties that will be included in the final version of the RAT.
Naming difficulties are one of the most common language deficits in aphasia. The aim of the present study was to develop a psycholinguistic test for object and action naming in aphasia. Data collected during standardization of the subtest for naming objects (116 stimuli) and actions (197 stimuli) demonstrated, that the proposed test is sensitive to anomia in different types and severity of aphasia. Criterion and concurrent validity of the subtest were established as well. Based on collected data more compact subtests for use in the clinic with items of varying difficulty taking into account relevant psycholinguistic properties will be constructed.
We investigated brain organization of action naming and its relation to brain damage localization and naming scores in patients with aphasia. Nineteen healthy people and 6 individuals with aphasia participated in an fMRI experiment. They had to name a picture of an action with a single verb or to utter a pseudo-verb in response to a digitally distorted picture. Patients with the damage to the left frontal areas, where normative activation was found in the healthy group, had the lowest naming scores. Higher naming scores in individuals with aphasia was found related to a generalized activation in the left hemisphere.
This study is an analysis of visual complexity, which is one of the psycholinguistic parameters of the “Verb and Action” and “Noun and Object” stimuli databases. Two measures of visual complexity are investigated: subjectivity and objectivity, as well as their relations to the other database parameters. In the noun database the two parameters show similar patterns; in the verb database there is some divergence in their manifestation. In general, the overall picture of the parameters’ interrelations of the stimuli databases attests their validity.
The goal of the present study is to examine how linguistic (word order) and nonlinguistic (motor stereotype) factors affect interpretation of spatial constructions in a language by healthy adults and patients with aphasia. Interim results indicate that healthy adults rely on direct motor stereotype for processing of spatial constructions, but it does not have a significant effect in our sample of patients, except for the group of patients with sensory aphasia. This group shows slowed-down comprehension of spatial constructions with indirect word order, especially sentences with indirect word order and indirect motor stereotype.