Угорский проект - перспективы развития Ближнего Севера
In the articles, reviews and abstracts submitted to your attantion under analysis are issues of social theory, empirical sociological studies, history of sociology. The contributions discuss the actual tendencies and perspectives of sociological science in Russia and abroad.
The paper presents the history of the rise, as well as themes and theoretical foundations os Ugory project, a complex interdisciplinary study of rural communities and the natural capital in one of the regions of the Russian Near North. The article defines the main objectives of the project, as well as its major conceptual approaches.
The concept of Nature, which has been central to the common comprehension of life throughout Russia’s ancient history, has never been epistemologically neutral. It was clearly embedded in paganism and its underlying values and canons. What is significant is that paganism’s essential understanding of Nature as divine has been radically retailored to achieve very divergent ends. The interpretation of Nature began to reflect the beliefs not of the culture as a whole but of the few who deemed themselves responsible to institute a more advanced culture in place of the existing one. In particular, the process of man’s abstraction from Nature has been taking place through concrete historical events.
The author examines the processes of globalization (‘cellular globalization’) in the Near North of Russia in the context of the increasing role of natural capital and the impact of the environment on the life of urban and rural communities. In the article it is discussed the transfer of the curriculum of a large modern university of the countryside ecological milieu as a part of large-scale migration trend, i.e. the invariant of the process of the transition of megapolis to the non-urban environment. The new information and communication technologies of distance learning enhance this process.
In his seminal work «Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft», Ferdinand Tönnies back in the late nineteenth century already predicted that the end of the gesellschaft era will be marked by the appearance of new gemeinschafts, which may give birth to a new culture. Nowadays, we may be witnessing the emergence of such gemeinschafts in the form of self-isolated local communities (ecovillages, intentional and religious communities, kin’s domain settlements, etc.). The situation in Russia is unique and unforeseen by Tönnies — new local gemeinschafts coexist in the same country and even in the same ethno-religious environment with the remaining old ones — territorially isolated local communities (remote hard-to-reach villages). Based on the identified features of a gemeinschaft, the article compares territorially isolated and self-isolated local communities (on the example of the so-called kin’s domain settlements — its most widespread variety in Russia) with an ideal gemeinschaft. The author concludes that territorially isolated communities are closer to an ideal gemeinschaft. This can be partly explained by the fact that kin’s domain settlements are still at the initial stage of their development. They grew out of the gesellschaft and bear some of its traits. And even now, gemeinschaft features in kin’s domain settlements are prevailing over the gesellschaft ones as evolution towards an ideal gemeinschaft continues. Nevertheless, new gemeinschafts will remain qualitatively different social ties as compared to the old ones. The data were collected in remote villages and kin’s domain settlements using such methods as in-depth interviews and observations with elements of participant observation.