Альтернативные структуры ценностных переменных Ш. Шварца в Европе
This article first gives a brief overview of my adventures in developing two theories of values and the methods to measure them. First came my theory of the basic values on which individuals in all cultures differ. Then, quite unexpectedly, the opportunity arose to develop a theory of cultural values on which societies differ. As the story unfolds, I tell of failures, triumphs, and challenges. Values research has expanded in the past two decades beyond my wildest early imaginings. The second section of the article presents some ideas about future directions worth pursuing in values research. It describes competing theories and controversies as well as ways to go beyond them. I hope it will stimulate further advances in this field to which I have devoted more than 20 years.
The analytical report presents the main results of the study "Social entrepreneur of the Russian Federation: self-portrait-2018", devoted to the study of the values and motivation of the modern Russian social entrepreneur, as well as the definition of a set of typical self-characteristics of social entrepreneurs. The methodological basis of the study was a survey of representatives of small and micro businesses who participated in various programs and activities for the development of social entrepreneurship (sample size-155 people).
This study used basic personal values to elucidate the motivational meanings of “left” and “right” political orientations in 20 representative national samples from the European Social Survey (2002–2003). It also compared the importance of personal values and sociodemographic variables as determinants of political orientation. Hypotheses drew on the different histories, prevailing culture, and socioeconomic level of three sets of countries—liberal, traditional, and postcommunist. As hypothesized, universalism and benevolence values explained a left orientation in both liberal and traditional countries and conformity and tradition values explained a right orientation; values had little explanatory power in postcommunist countries. Values predicted political orientation more strongly than sociodemographic variables in liberal countries, more weakly in postcommunist countries, and about equally in traditional countries.