Тюремная индустрия. Структура тюремной индустрии. Пенитенциарная доктрина стран Скандинавии. Пенитенциарная система Финляндии
In 2015, Russia's judicial system saw a marked expansion in the repressive activity of the law enforcement bodies. For the first time in many years, there was a significant rise in the frequency of sentences involving imprisonment, while standards of proof in the Russian courts declined. The judiciary tried to compensate for its inability to resist pressure from the law enforcement bodies through the unprecedented application of amnesty in court verdicts. Sporadically declared amnesties have become almost the only thing protecting the Russian penal system from overcrowding.
Love and care “on the distance”: young women in the networks of the prisoners’ support. In the focus of this article are young women, which meet imprisoned men via Internet or telephone, develop later distant relationship and get involved in the female networks of prisoners’ support. The academic interest to this category is coursed by the unusual choice of the partner in the situation when women have a wide range of other opportunities. In the article it will be explored not only the life stories of young women but also the specific of the current prison studies in Russia which are very much underdeveloped. The focus on the “distant wives” and their communication, the waiting regimes and care practices can contribute to the current debates on production of female identity in the conditions of the total transformation of everyday life. This problematic is underestimated and “invisible” both in gender studies, and also in more narrow studies of the specific practices of intimacy in the near/semi/criminal world. The paper is based on the empirical sociological research of the women networks of the prisoners’ support.
Objective: to identify the diversity of cohesion forms in confi nement institutions. Methods: qualitative analyses based on in-depth semi-structured interviews. Results: the study included adaptation of Western methodologies of the cohesion phenomenon analysis to the Russian reality, and operationalization of the moral bases of group cohesion. This served as the bases for designing a guide for in-depth semi-structured interviews; 10 interviews were conducted with people recently released from general and strict regime colonies. Content analysis of the interviews revealed a number of structural sections that demonstrate the diversity of cohesion forms, alongside with one that is most meaningful to the prisoners and therefore the most well perceived and articulated by respondents. Analysis of the latter allowed to identify a set of groups showing different degree and nature of cohesion. By the degree of cohesion one can identify the poorly cohesive groups ("louts"), moderately cohesive ("reds", "thieves") and highly cohesive ("fi ghters"). By the nature of cohesion in the prisoners’ community, there are both groups united on the basis of social morality ("reds", "thieves") and groups demonstrating a high degree of cohesion based on the social justice morality ("fi ghters"). A detailed analysis of the latter group also showed that the cohesion can have both traits of morality, social justice, and features of social order moral. Scientifi c novelty: using the socio-psychological theory of the moral motives in determining the bases of cohesion. Practical signifi cance: the research results can be applied for the development of socio-psychological techniques for the penal system reform