Trade in goods that are not perfect substitutes can considerably change the predictions of standard neoclassical models about the effects of demographic developments. This paper considers a relative decrease in the population size of one country, when countries specialize in the production of different intermediate goods. The degree of substitutability is crucial for the direction of capital flows between the countries and for the development of wages. The less those goods are substitutes, the stronger the long-run international spillover effects of a demographic shock will be. For the interest rate effects, also international differences in saving rates due to e.g., different pension schemes have to be taken into account.
The overview of Russian social security law and its history
This article presents a simple condition for optimal coordination of social security policies in the union of two open economies employing different production functions and within which capital and labour are fully mobile. We find that if both countries run fully funded pension schemes, the allocation of mobile production factors may not be optimal when the countries have different technologies. To remove this distortion, at least one country must run a pay-as-you-go pension scheme. Policy coordination which takes technological differences into account allows for the removal of static inefficiencies, maximizing the welfare of the agents in the steady state.