Общественная палата в условиях регионального элитного конфликта (на примере Челябинской области).
Public Chamber of Chelyabinskaya oblast in situation of regional inter-elite conflict.
The objective of paper is analysis of the role and place of Public Chamber of Chelyabinskaya oblast in the situation of inter-elite conflict in this region. It was a conflict between the team of governor Michael Yurevich, from one side, and coalition of persons from police and other ‘power’ structures with the part of industrial elite of region with non-formal leader chair of regional court Theodor Yiatkin, from other side. The positions of four groups of respondents – from government structures, from NGOs, from Muss-Media, and from academic community – concerning the participation of Public Chamber and it’s chair in regional inter-elite conflict are analyzed by means of materials of sixteen experts interview and focus-group.
The article features an empirical perspective of the nonprofit sector in Central and East Europe (CEE), its scope and structure by different parameters. Among development factors with substantial impact on the evolution of the third sector in CEE particular attention is paid to the institutional heritage of the socialist period and of the early stages of the democratic transition; to the “harmonization” of legislation policy implemented as part of the EU accession in CEE; EU policies stimulating the participation of civil society organizations in the solution of social problems.
Voluntary organizations have two main subtypes: voluntary associations and voluntary agencies. This article deals with voluntary associations, whereas a different article entitled ‘Voluntary Organizations’ deals with voluntary agencies. This article reviews association governance and leadership, history, prevalence rates and their determinants, purposive, and analytical types of associations, geographic scope, degree of paid staff dependence, targets of benefits (recipients), types of members, formalization and government recognition, misconduct and deviance in and by associations, government control issues, internal democracy, monomorphic and polymorphic associations, collaboration, intensity of activity, personal contact and relationships, membership requirements, prestige and power, and degrees and types of impact.
There is a sharp contradiction between public policies to support SMEs and features of Russian national SMEs. Using western experience in Russia, doing some bright projects to stimulate small businesses was important twenty years ago. Quantitative and qualitative parameters of SMEs in Russia lag behind most countries, largely due to the structure of its economy with the traditional dominance of large enterprises
and the prevailing business climate. Small and medium-sized business in Russia is not innovative, does not perform antitrust function and does not create many
jobs. Small and medium-sized business generates a positive competitive environment. But the importance of SMEs in Russia should not be exaggerated. The scale of subcontracting and franchising with independent small businesses in our country is extremely small. It happened so that the Russian economic policy and the leading part of the national political establishment were in a subordinate position in relation to the interests of a narrow circle of large businesses, mainly engaged in production and export of the most important natural resources. Manufacturing, infrastructural and other facilities of big business, its supply and marketing relations and, most importantly, its long-term economic interests focus on large enterprises and, with few exceptions, show no interest for the SMEs sector. The situation is exacerbated by the fact that the Russian system of economic institutions encourages big business mostly. It also proves an essential specific situation of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia. The development of Russian small and medium-sized business entirely depends on the state of the economy and the business climate in the country. The business climate in Russia does not correspond to the needs of small and medium-sized businesses. Measures to improve the business climate can potentially help Russian small and medium-sized businesses much more than the existing costly system meant to support them. It is obvious that the whole Russian system for SMEs support, fold increase in the federal budget to support Russian SMEs occurred in the recent years, is unable to compensate for a generally unfavorable business environment in Russia. It is necessary to improve the quality of investment, business climate and institutions in Russia. The real growth of the Russian SMEs can be expected only with the modernization, new industrialization of the Russian economy and business climate improvements.
Conference proceeding SGEM 2014
The article considers the Institution of Presidential Commissioner for Children's Rights in the Russian Federation. The author analyzes legal aspects and features of this institute in Russia. The article gives the complex efficiency assessment of the Institution of Presidential Commissioner in the Russian Federation and the main directions of his activity.
The book of professor of National research University Higher School of Economics A.Yu. Sungurov devoted to the process of expert influence on the policy decision process. The different kinds of expertise and models of expert community and government interaction are analysed in the first chapter of book. The Russian and international scienific discussions on this topics analysed in the forst chapter also. The results of our research of practics of experts and government interactions into process of policy policy decisions in Russia at federal and regional levels are presented in the second chapter of book. The problems of normative expertise and expert accompaniment of policy decisions are analysed also.