Поиск букв и слов среди букв: сравнительное исследование с регистрацией движений глаз
The article analyzes the problem of top-down influences on visual information processing by the example of the phenomenon «the word superiority effect». The authors illustrate the situation of visual search of a letter in alphabetic lines, where the letter may be in a random string of letters and words. It is assumed that allocation of the word like the perceptual unit doesn’t an automatic process. The research showed that spontaneous allocation of words by search of a letter is possible; however it is mediated by the mutual arrangement of target letters and words in the form. The evidence is given that the solution of an experimental task involves not a single process of attention with phenomenal and productive aspects, but there are two classes of processes among which only one can be referred to attention.
The heterogeneity of our visual environment typically reduces the speed with which a singleton target can be found. Visual search theories explain this via nontarget similarities and dissimilarities that affect grouping, perceptual noise, etc. Here, we show that increasing the heterogeneity of a display can facilitate rather than inhibit visual search for size and orientation singletons when heterogeneous features smoothly fill the transition between highly distinguishable nontargets. We suggest that this smooth transition reduce the “segmentability” of dissimilar items to otherwise separate subsets making the visual system to treat them as a near-homogenous sets opposing to a singleton.