In the article, the author's system of objects like toy-puzzle, which have been given for 3-year children, teenagers and adults for independent exploration, setting and solving different problems, is presented. Two main ways of the idea of the experimental object appearing are stated. The tasks of the exploratory object design and «participant’s interface» and "experimenter's interface" development are worked out. The main principles of the experimental objects’ integral system are formulated. It is shown, that real objects in some important aspects are more optimal then virtual for psychological experiments, diagnostics, and estimation. It is stated, that in the difficult activity insight can be connected not only with the solving but also with the productive new problems’ setting – for the others and for oneself. Creative constructology is observed in the aspect of constructing of tasks for creative thinking: the traditional tasks, as well as the problem situations with an open beginning and the end and the research environments, giving the freedom of creation for a participant and the freedom of dialog construction between her/him and the researcher.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.