Chapter 3. Durkheim’s Theory of Social Solidarity and Social Rules
An analysis of the theory of social solidarity and social rules by French sociologist Emile Durkheim is carried out. Some new or revised interpretations of the ideas of social solidarity, social regulation, collective effervescence, anomie in Durkheim’s and Robert Merton’s theories are given.
In the articles, reviews and abstracts submitted to your attantion under analysis are issues of social theory, empirical sociological studies, history of sociology. The contributions discuss the actual tendencies and perspectives of sociological science in Russia and abroad.
The project addresses anomie and alienation theories as a means of studying the state of contemporary societies. The two theories appeared and developed separately, but with the institutionalization of psychological anomie (anomia) as well as with the extension of the notion of alienation the two theories became not only close to each other but also mixed with each other. Still, there hasn’t been enough theoretical contribution to the separation of the two concepts (Shoham 1982, Olsen 1965), and none on the separation within the alienation theory and the psychological anomie, which is claimed to be crucial for both theoretical and empirical works. The project offers a model of conceptualization of the concepts and applies it using ESS 2010.
The article analyses theoretical resources of post-Durkheimian tradition in the sociology of emotions. The author proposes to use concept "shared affect" as theoretical frame. Being used on the context of key for sociology of emotions distinctions, such as "feeling/expression," "consciousness/unconsciousness emotion," "involvement/distancing of emotions," this concept lets to highlight relation of specific problems of sociology of emotions and ones of theoretical sociology.
Emotion, sociology of emotions, Durkheim, collective emotions, shared affect, intensity of emotions, Collins, background emotions, Scheff, distancing of emotions, emotion work
In this chapter, I argue that the Durkheimian theory of the sacred is a crucial yet not fully recognized resource for cognitive sociology. It contains not only a theory of culture (which is acknowledged in contemporary sociology), but also a vision of culture-cognition relations. Thus, Durkheimian cultural sociology allows us to understand the crucial role the sacred/profane opposition plays in structuring culture, perception and thought. Based on a number of theories, I also show how another opposition – between the pure and impure modes of the sacred, allows us to explain dynamic features of the sacred and eventually provides a basic model of social change. While explicating this vision and resultant opportunities for sociological analysis I also criticize ‘cognition apart from culture’ approaches established within cognitive sociology. I argue, thus, that culture not only participates in cognition but is an intrinsic ingredient of the human mind. Culture is not a chaotic and fragmented set of elements, as some sociologists imply to a greater or lesser degree, but a system; and as such it is an inner environment for human thought and social action. This system, however, is governed not by formal logic, as some critics of the autonomy of culture presuppose, but by concrete configurations of emotionally-charged categories, created and re-created in social interactions.
In the article the main sociological problem of social solidarity is discussed in terms of sociology of emotions. Emotions as integral part of human behavior operate on micro- and macrolevel of social structure and promote social consensus and make adjustments to normative behavior. On the basis of analysis of the body of works on sociology of emotions the author concludes that sociologists tend to study social solidarity through «moral emotions». Namely these emotions have strong effects on individual and social behavior and hold up moral order and social solidarity. In the author’s opinion moral emotions are the part of emotional regimes, which are developed in social order and support social solidarity.
The paper presents an analysis of the key events associated with changes in youth culture and civic activities in modern Russia, occurring during the first decade of the 21 st century. Discursive representations of youth typical for this period (government programs directed toward the youth theme, media projects, activist initiatives), as well as policy responses to the growth of youth activities, including projects of youth mobilization, are also discussed. A key event - the financial and economic crisis (recession) in 2008 - is regarded as a turning point / the turn of the century, which particularly affected the reconceptualization of the youth question in modern Russia in different dimensions: political-activist, patriotic, urban, subcultural and others. In this article we suggest a new focus of considering new forms of youth activism, through the prism of the solidarity approach. We analyze key trends in new youth solidarities in the political, cultural and economic dimensions.
Social capital is shown to be connected not only with macroeconomic indicators at societal level but with peoples economic behavior (n = 634). Relationships of social capital and attitude to money are considered. Assumption that social capital can fulfi ll the regulative function in peoples attitude to material resources which can manifest itself at individual level in peculiarities of attitude to money is expressed. As far as different forms of capital can convert into each other, persons high social capital must be joined with his lesser money - orientation. Social capital at the individual level has a negative infl uence on intensity of the following monetary attitudes (according to A. Furnham): Retention, Power, Inadequacy, Security.
Some basic subjects of the history and theory of sociology are considered in this book. Among these subjects are sociocultural tradition; social cohesion; sociological theory; its development in the past, present and future; influence of fashion in this development; origins of interrelations of sociologies in France and Russia; epistolary genre in the history of sociological thought, namely in the work of Marx and Durkheim.
Sociology of altruism, morality and social solidarity: introduction in a new field of study.