The Palgrave Handbook of Altruism, Morality, and Social Solidarity: Formulating a Field of Study
Sociology of altruism, morality and social solidarity: introduction in a new field of study.
An analysis of the theory of social solidarity and social rules by French sociologist Emile Durkheim is carried out. Some new or revised interpretations of the ideas of social solidarity, social regulation, collective effervescence, anomie in Durkheim’s and Robert Merton’s theories are given.
In the articles, reviews and abstracts submitted to your attantion under analysis are issues of social theory, empirical sociological studies, history of sociology. The contributions discuss the actual tendencies and perspectives of sociological science in Russia and abroad.
The article concentrates on Chicherin, a Russian philosopher and lawyer, and his views on the correlation between liberty, law and morality. The author comments on Chicherin's ideas in the context of other views existing at the turn of the 19th and the 20th centuries. These are the views of such representatives of the Russian socially political, legal and philosophical ideas as Kavelin, Novgorodtsev, Struve, Alekseev and others, including modern researchers. Special reference is maid to Chicherin and Solovyov's polemics, which is important step in the history of Russian philosophy. Pointing out a constant connection between law and morality, that often complement each other on the basis of common values, Chicherin strongly insisted on differentiating between these notions. He was sure that the only way to a moral ideal was freedom, not an outward compulsion. And our past historical experience is the best confirmation of this idea. The work also focuses on the fact that the peculiarity of Russian law philosophy is its concentration on the questions of morality and law, the attempt of becoming closer to a moral ideal.
This edition, consisting of the book (Part 1 – "the Persistence stay with you") and CD (Part 2 – "Something that leads us into the depths of ourselves"), includes articles, translations and discussions on interdisciplinary research of the phenomenon of care of the Self and its understanding in various humanitarian sciences. The edition is intended for everyone interested in the problems of personal self-development, transformation, and formation of themselves as an individual, representative of society, culture and profession.
This article is dedicated to the problem of knowledge inthe field of morality. The main idea here is that such knowledge needs so called moral feeling.
In the article the main sociological problem of social solidarity is discussed in terms of sociology of emotions. Emotions as integral part of human behavior operate on micro- and macrolevel of social structure and promote social consensus and make adjustments to normative behavior. On the basis of analysis of the body of works on sociology of emotions the author concludes that sociologists tend to study social solidarity through «moral emotions». Namely these emotions have strong effects on individual and social behavior and hold up moral order and social solidarity. In the author’s opinion moral emotions are the part of emotional regimes, which are developed in social order and support social solidarity.
This article discusses current approaches to the study of morality as a predictor of individual behavior. Integration of personological and socio- psychological approaches opens new perspectives for considering the relationship between moral judgment and moral action. «Self» is considered as a «point of intersection». «Moral Self» is the center of attention in a number of personological as well as socio — psychological research directions. The total consideration of three factors — cognitive aspects of the morality (representations, values, judgments), the components of Self (moral self-esteem and the place of morality in the structure of Self) and situational infl uences (threat / support of the moral Self) — allows to predict individual behavior.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.