Жозеф де Местр в планах Александра I накануне войны 1812 года
The articale proposes a comparative study of three differents of view concerning the nature of the Russian Campaign of 1812. We will examine the opinion of the ambassador of the Kingdom of Sardinia to the Russian Court, Joseph de Maistre, that of the French woman of letters, Germaine de Staёl, and that of the government civil servant of the Rassian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, G.F. Faber. In common, they have a European vision of the events in Russian Campaign as a popular (narodnaya) war, they meet with the unrelevantness of the antithesis of the Century of Enlightement: "barbarism - civilization" to explain a new reality, provoked by war. J de Maustre considered a war against France as useless in so far as, according to him, the Restoration of the Bourbons was a domestic policy problem. Mme de Staёl, on the contrary, thought that this war and, particularly, Alexandre I's personality,would allow a liberalization ot European politics. For Faber, this popular war the sign of the unchanging character of the serfdom.
Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821) was an exemplary representative of counterrevolutionnary ideology during the late Enlightenment and Romantism. Now. in retrospect, he is seen to be a subtle qnd cqustic critic of the ideas of Enlightenment, showing the impossibility of fighting these ideas with purely rational arguments without recourse to archaic ideqs qnd legends of the "eternel" social structure. Joseph de Maistre spent many years in Russia, establishing a number of intellectual contacts there and becoming one of the first Europeans to try to correlate Western European ideas and the traditions of Russia.