Ислам у народов Кавказа и Средней Азии в трудах преподавателей и сотрудников Восточного факультета СПбГУ
Is Orientalism on outcome of the academic scholarship studying the Orient, its peoples, their history and culture? Or, as the American literary critic of the Palestinian origin Edward Said argues, it rather justifies colonialism in the past and the modern expansionist policy of the Western powers? This collection of articles written by Russian and foreign orientalists aims to help readers to understand this multifaceted problems. It includes arguments for both "for" and "against" the famous concept of E. Said. The object of the study of most of the authors of the collection are Muslims - the population of regions traditionally practicing Islam, and migrants, as well as the orientalists studying the era of the colonial empires and the Soviet period that followed it in Russia. A thoughtful reader should form his own opinion on this issueeader will find it reliable arguments in this matter.
Soviet posters created in the interwar Soviet Orient are as ambiguous as the very time of a sharp social and cultural breakthrough and the emergence of a new society. They represent a huge, but still poorly understood, layer in the history of Soviet visual propaganda. Bearing in itself the artistic and advertising, information and agitation functions, taking into account the national mentality, these posters fully fulfilled their assigned role: attracted the attention and interest of the viewer, activated the perception, controlled the mass consciousness. Vivid figurative posters, resolved in the characteristic post-revolutionary time avant-garde constructivist manner, were created by professional artists who dreamed of the birth of a great national style.
The Nogais of the North-Eastern Caucasus call their funeral stone steles syntaslar. Thousands of these steles rise in the cemeteries of the Nogai Steppe. So far, they have not attracted the attention of researchers yet. The book first introduces into the scientific turnover of about three hundred Nogai syntaslar. These are curious monuments culture of one of the Muslim peoples of Russia. The earliest of these steles date back to to the last quarter of the XVIII century. This type of monuments is preserved in the Nogai Steppe up to 70-80-ies of the XX century. The authors of the book analyze texts, form and ornamentation of grave steles, images on them of various objects related to both Islamic denomination of Nogai, as well as clothes, ornaments and occupations of men and women. Particular attention is paid to the inscriptions of the XVIII-XX centuries, made in Arabic script, mainly in literary Arabic. Book is designed not only for specialists, but also for a wide range of readers interested in history and culture of the Turkic Muslim peoples.
One significant form of the religious revival in the post-Soviet space is the revival of sacred sites, a revival that takes many forms. The forum aims to ask what does this revival mean and how can it be approached? Against the background of attempts at desecration or at ‘muting’ the sacred during the Soviet period, should the revival of sacred sites be understood as a process of de-secularisation and re-enchantment? How is this process connected to identity claims? This forum explores these questions by examining the process of reviving sacred sites in various post-Soviet countries, specifically Russia (the Urals, Dagestan and North Ossetia), Kazakhstan and Tajikistan. The contributions to the forum show diverse ways in which processes of reviving or preserving these sites are connected with forms of identification (religious, secular, ethnic, national and transnational), as revealed through the prism of practice, narrative and materiality. The multiple identities that have emerged during the revival of sacred space can blend, coexist or compete.
This paper examines patterns of support for conservative attitudes toward abortion, divorce, and premarital sex in nine societies of the former Soviet Union. We use the World Values Survey data from Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan collected in 2011–2013 to discuss the reasons of lifestyle intolerance. Using latent class and other multivariate analyzes, we find that the degree of religiosity is a more important predictor of conservative values than is the Islamic cultural legacy. For instance, people in the Christian and very religious countries of Armenia and Georgia are far more likely to condemn sex before marriage or abortion than are Muslims in more secular Kazakhstan. Interestingly, the watershed between the heterogeneous and uniform societies does not coincide with the economic divide as there are rich and poor countries in the sample. Instead, the watershed is best described by the country's degree of religiosity, which may well be an effect of economic development awhile ago rather than at the present time. Latent class analysis suggests that populations are more heterogeneous with regard to attitudes toward abortion, divorce, and premarital sex in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine. In Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan, there is more unanimity in reprobation of abortion, divorce, and premarital sex.
Vladimir Bobrovnikov discusses the new book by Sergey Abashin, The Soviet Kishlak - Between Colonialism and Modernization. Historiographic analysis overlaps with ego histoire, as Bobrovnikov has witnessed the work on the project from its inception, twenty years ago, when the new cohort of scholars of Muslim communities was forming in Russia. Through participant observation and oral histories gathered in 1995-2009, Abashin succeeded in writing a microhistory of empire in the case of an Uzbek village in North Tajikistan.Working at this local level, he deconstructs imperial and national narratives of the Russian conquest of Central Asia, examines practices and networks of village solidarity and rivalry between its factions, and investigates social foundations of local religiousity.