Is Logic Normative for Reasoning?
The principle that logic provides norms for reasoning is a traditional basis for demarcating the bounds of logic as a discipline. Nowadays, the role of logic in ‘everyday reasoning’ has been challenged. The main aim of this study is to show the advantages of shifting focus towards dynamic model of normativity.
In this early paper C. Wright Mills tries to ground the possibility for the study of thinking (including logical) from the perspective of sociology of knowledge. Following G.H. Mead, he shows that thinking is a social process because every thinker converses with his or her audience using the norms of rationality and logicality common to his or her culture. Language serves as a mediator between thinking and social patterns. Proposing to consider the meaning of language as the common social behavior evoked by it, Mills finds a way to combine three levels of analysis: psychological, social and cultural.
The article is devoted to considering the problem of possible worlds in Leibniz. The author shows that the idea of possible worlds is basic in Leibniz’s theory of «the best of all possible worlds» where it is postulated in the metaphysical justification of the divine creation as a free act and in the solution of the theological problem concerning the existence of evil. Also, Leibniz connects this idea with logic which he interprets as a science about all possible worlds. Leibniz's dichotomy between «truths of reason» and «truths of fact» is investigated in the context of necessity and contingency. Logical and moral reasons for God's choice of the best of possible worlds are examined in detail in both early and mature works by Leibniz.
This article deals with the general characterization of the legal conception elaborated by the prominent jurist of the 20th century — Hans Kelsen (1881-1973). The author examines the basic biographic facts about intellectual formation of this Austrian legal thinker. The author particularly underlines the relationship between Kelsen’s ideas about law, and his practical activity as law professor, jurist, and judge. The special accent is made on the period before the Second World War. In author’s opinion, it is during this period that the philosophical and conceptual basis of the pure theory of law has been laid down.
In this paper are studied the problems of legal development in the modern societies. This development is examined in the perspective of globalization and modernisation which lead the lawyers to the new understanding of communicative and social dimension of law. In author’s opinion, the contemporary theory of law needs a new approach to law which takes into account social possibilities of the interhuman behaviour and the social reality of law. Introducing such a theory implies a self-referent, operative and normative integrity of law and of the legal communication
The present volume is devoted to the 'Open Rusian-Finish Colloquium on Logic' (ORFIC), held at the Saint-Petersburg State University, on June 14-16, 2012. Among the participants there were such prominent Finish logicians as Jaakko Hintikka, Ilkka Niiniluoto ang Gabriel Sandu. The volume covers the most interesting results recently obtained in different areas of research in logic.
This volume is of interest to everyone, concerned in modern logic.