«Дело врачей» на Урале
Über den Einfluss der Experten auf die Sicherung des Eigentums im östlichen Europa.
Im vorliegenden Band werden die Geschichte juristischer, administrativer, technischer und künstlerischer Professionen in Deutschland, Ostmitteleuropa und Russland, Westeuropa und den USA vom 19. Jahrhundert bis heute verglichen. Der Titel »Professionen, Eigentum und Staat« zeigt an, was die hier versammelten Untersuchungen über Professionen in verschiedenen Ländern und Großregionen zusammenhält: Es geht um das Zusammenspiel dreier zentraler Dimensionen der Modernisierung, nämlich 1) der beruflichen und fachlichen Spezialisierung in der Welt des Wissens und der Ausdrucksformen (Professionalisierung), 2) der Durchsetzung der Eigentumsordnung in der Landwirtschaft, Industrie und Kultur (Propertisierung) und 3) der Etablierung des territorialen Nationalstaats als politisch, sozial, kulturell, wirtschaftlich und rechtlich begründete souveräne Organisation (Nationalisierung).
Es soll gezeigt werden, wie diese in der Forschung oft isoliert behandelten Prozesse in verschiedenen Kontexten und Konstellationen ineinandergreifen; wo und wann sie sich wechselseitig verstärken oder behindern; und welche Formen von Beruflichkeit und Profession daraus resultieren.
The article is devoted to the Soviet phenomenon of «letters to authorities». Three major interpretations of «letters» are presented: 1) as a way to implement the democratic right for participating in state management and right for justice; 2) as an instrument for repressive political campaign; 3) as a significant form of personal identification with authorities. Claims were an important social phenomenon of the Soviet life. The author presents typical and specific claims (on the materials of Perm State Archives of Contemporary History) and ways of dealing with them on the local level. The author analyses the post-war years’ claims, which help to understand the peculiarities of the Soviet everyday life, the rhetoric of the era, and the forms of citizens’ resistance to injustice.
Topic of the article - part of the Regional (Molotov) print in a political campaign in 1946 political campaign was initiated by the decision of the organ-izing bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) "On the magazines" Zvezda "and" Leningrad ". Actually it started in the regions after the report Zhdanov. The mechanism of the campaign assumed a certain course of events: the publication in major newspapers of the country, republication of all the local newspapers, the discussion at the meetings of party activists, and then in all or-ganizations, the search for similar cases in the territory. And then, these cases could be the reason for the arrest of any person. Main topic of the article - the role of local media in the implementation of the political campaign of 1946. Press play the role of "collective propagandist," "collective agitator" and "collec-tive organizer." People often believe the press more than the actual events and their life experience. According to the materials of newspaper articles is analyzed the process of forming a new power of discourse about literature. Molotov newspaper borrowed the rhetoric of the campaign at once. Molotov regional newspaper "The Star" reprinted editorial "Truth", calling for self-criticism. That's all. Local newspapers have joined separately and with different intensity publications. The newspapers did not have to name any of the local artists who could claim to be the local "Zoschenko." The campaign was an unsystematic character, it is weakly governed from the center. It can be assumed that the initi-ators of the campaign were not interested in expanding the circle of victims, but pursued the ideological goals: to bring to the collective consciousness of the So-viet intelligentsia, a new discourse of power: the pathetic, pathetic, authoritarian, in fact, a new version of the Soviet identity. Local authorities skillfully took ad-vantage of actually closing their territory from unwanted consequences of Mos-cow's beginnings. They have limited political effect of mechanical duplication of the capital campaign rhetoric and duty calls develop criticism and self-criticism. In the next issue of political campaigns has been improved.
The article makes a professional image rekonstruiruktsiya teacher. The author believes that the main advantage and at the same time the main function of the teacher - to serve the people. Its content is the enlightenment of the ministry, decorated in a messianic view. The messiah means complete self-denial and penance.
The article attempts to outline new theoretical approaches to the study of the Soviet past, based on the cultural-anthropological research program of “the Soviet man” as proposed by N. N. Kozlova. Our assumption is that, in the implementation of her research program, Kozlova was trying to solve a double problem: on the one hand, to overcome the ideological framework posed by the concept of totalitarianism as the basic model of understanding Soviet society, and on the other, to understand Soviet society as an unintended social invention, In the framework of the model of Soviet society as an unintended social invention, classical social-theoretical views and conceptions enter into a complex theoretical alliance with the postclassical social theories of Norbert Elias, Michel Foucault, Michel de Certeau, and Pierre Bourdieu. The purpose of this strategy of research is to find adequate intellectual models and a basic theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between the individual and society. The qualification of the Soviet society as a social invention implies that a functional interdependent network of individuals arises in the course of common life of the individuals from the interactions between them. This network moves in a certain direction and has its own regularities, which, as specific patterns of relations between individuals, is not defined exactly by any one individual. The role of the basic model for the understanding of such a functional network of interdependent individuals does not play the model of the system, but the model of the common game and the social grammar, which is at the core of this game. Special attention is paid to the assessment of the heuristic potential of Kozlova’s hypothesis of Soviet civilization as a special type of modern society, and its importance for the studies of Soviet society and culture.