Годы террора: Книга памяти жертв политических репрессий
Über den Einfluss der Experten auf die Sicherung des Eigentums im östlichen Europa.
Im vorliegenden Band werden die Geschichte juristischer, administrativer, technischer und künstlerischer Professionen in Deutschland, Ostmitteleuropa und Russland, Westeuropa und den USA vom 19. Jahrhundert bis heute verglichen. Der Titel »Professionen, Eigentum und Staat« zeigt an, was die hier versammelten Untersuchungen über Professionen in verschiedenen Ländern und Großregionen zusammenhält: Es geht um das Zusammenspiel dreier zentraler Dimensionen der Modernisierung, nämlich 1) der beruflichen und fachlichen Spezialisierung in der Welt des Wissens und der Ausdrucksformen (Professionalisierung), 2) der Durchsetzung der Eigentumsordnung in der Landwirtschaft, Industrie und Kultur (Propertisierung) und 3) der Etablierung des territorialen Nationalstaats als politisch, sozial, kulturell, wirtschaftlich und rechtlich begründete souveräne Organisation (Nationalisierung).
Es soll gezeigt werden, wie diese in der Forschung oft isoliert behandelten Prozesse in verschiedenen Kontexten und Konstellationen ineinandergreifen; wo und wann sie sich wechselseitig verstärken oder behindern; und welche Formen von Beruflichkeit und Profession daraus resultieren.
The author shows motives and methods of falsifications in the activity of NKVD officers at the time of Great Terror. An example of Perm NKVD officers is a focus of this micro-historical analysis. The main sources include the files of so called «counterrevolutionary crimes’ trials» in the State Contemporary History Archives of Perm Region. The most useful documents are examination testimonies of Perm NKVD officers. These sources correlate with a great number of evidences of the victims of political repressions. Available sources permit revealing both the motives and methods of falsification work of Perm NKVD officers. The subject of inquiry is an illegal activity of executors who were NKVD officers of mean and lower rank. Using mass falsification allowed them to construct fabulous plots which were supposedly hatched by “public enemies”. Those NKVD officers, together with their leaders, became co-organizers of Great Terror. The analysis of the sources permits stating that daily work of NKVD officers in the years of Great Terror was not in conducting inquiries but in providing mass falsifications based on forgery, violence, etc.
The article makes a professional image rekonstruiruktsiya teacher. The author believes that the main advantage and at the same time the main function of the teacher - to serve the people. Its content is the enlightenment of the ministry, decorated in a messianic view. The messiah means complete self-denial and penance.
The article attempts to outline new theoretical approaches to the study of the Soviet past, based on the cultural-anthropological research program of “the Soviet man” as proposed by N. N. Kozlova. Our assumption is that, in the implementation of her research program, Kozlova was trying to solve a double problem: on the one hand, to overcome the ideological framework posed by the concept of totalitarianism as the basic model of understanding Soviet society, and on the other, to understand Soviet society as an unintended social invention, In the framework of the model of Soviet society as an unintended social invention, classical social-theoretical views and conceptions enter into a complex theoretical alliance with the postclassical social theories of Norbert Elias, Michel Foucault, Michel de Certeau, and Pierre Bourdieu. The purpose of this strategy of research is to find adequate intellectual models and a basic theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between the individual and society. The qualification of the Soviet society as a social invention implies that a functional interdependent network of individuals arises in the course of common life of the individuals from the interactions between them. This network moves in a certain direction and has its own regularities, which, as specific patterns of relations between individuals, is not defined exactly by any one individual. The role of the basic model for the understanding of such a functional network of interdependent individuals does not play the model of the system, but the model of the common game and the social grammar, which is at the core of this game. Special attention is paid to the assessment of the heuristic potential of Kozlova’s hypothesis of Soviet civilization as a special type of modern society, and its importance for the studies of Soviet society and culture.
After clearing of the Far East of interventionists in 1922 – 1923 the main task of the young Soviet state was the establishment of diplomatic relations between Moscow and Tokyo. Representatives of the USSR and Japan had been signed on January, 20th, 1925 "the Convention on main principles of mutual relations between the USSR and Japan". The memorandum of general Tanaka Giiti (on July, 25th, 1927) about bases of a policy in Manchuria and Mongolia predetermined aggressive plans of Japan not only these territories, but also Russia. Koreans in territory of the Soviet Far East have appeared "hostages" of two countries USSR and Japan. Changes in foreign policy between these countries directly were reflected in destiny of the Soviet Koreans. Since 1927 in Korea from the Japanese government repressions and persecutions in relation to Koreans have amplified. In USSR Koreans began to accuse of "the Japanese espionage". Repressions have amplified in 1931 -1932 and in 1937 – 1938.