Конституционные ориентиры экономической политики
This Chapter examines the constitutional basis of the economic system of Russia, the main stages of its development are highlighted and are characterized by the constitutional-legal institutions of economic regulation; analyzed the ratio of the constitutional and economic institutions
The author presents a review of the book «The Economic Institutions of the Old Believers». The study is at the crossroads of economic history, economic sociology, economic theory (in the first place, the new institutionalism) and maybe even religious studies. The author tries to understand the mysterious phenomenon of Old Believe entrepreneurship, played a very important role in the economic development of Russia in the late XVIII-early XX centuries.
The institution of the university comprises one of the most important actors within national, regional or metropolitan economic systems. Typically, metropolitan universities are seen in terms of components of the respective national economic system. However, the object of our research is the institution of the regional university, which is defined in terms of a regional economic actor. There are various models for analysing the impact of universities on the regional economies. Several studies have studied this phenomenon in terms of providing employment, increasing expenditures and exporting educational services to other regions. However, in emphasising the role of universities in regional economies within the knowledge economy, most contemporary researchers consider the university as a major producer of scientific knowledge. Different "helix" models and models of university engagement are constructed in the context of this position. In order to overcome problems concerning terminological and methodological diversity, we propose to employ an institutional approach to the analysis of economic phenomena. Institutions are understood as comprising a set of formal and informal norms, as well as the mechanisms required to implement their conformance with these norms. The aim of our study is the development of a typology of institutions of scientific knowledge generation according to the different phases and stages of scientific production. In order to avoid an artificial gap in the subject-object relation, we analyse the problem on the basis of the methodological unity of actors, stakeholders and institutions, as well as their interactions with the environment (natural, political, social, economic and cultural). For the classification of institutions, several dimensions were referred to: the stages of knowledge generation (production, exchange, dissemination and consumption); management functions (planning, organisation, control and motivation). The model of circulation of explicit / tacit knowledge SECI developed by Nonaka and Takeuchi for the corporate sector is also thought to be relevant in this connection. On the basis of this model, we have identified the institutions of socialisation, externalisation, combination and internalisation of knowledge. The results of the study will be used in the further analysis of case studies of universities, both in Russia and elsewhere.
The chapter discusses evolution and performance of Russia’s economic institutions. Outcomes and driving forces of institutional change in the country throughout its postcommunist history are analyzed and related to exogenous factors such as culture, resource abundance, and economic inequality. A failure to establish market-supporting institutions, including secure property rights, as a spontaneous outcome of economic liberalization and privatization is explained. It is argued that Russia’s natural wealth drove a wedge between institutions and economic growth. Institutions established de jure do not always function in accordance with their raison d’être and are often misused in pursuit of opportunistic gains. The 2008 global crisis did not have a healing effect on Russian economic institutions. Economic and political elites are unlikely to become champions of institutional modernization in the country, and improvement of Russian institutions could occur in response to grassroots demand articulated by civil society.
Effective property rights protection plays a fundamental role in promoting economic performance. Yet measurement problems make the relationship between property rights and entrepreneurship an ambiguous issue. As an advancement on previous research in this paper we propose a new approach to the evaluation of the security of property rights based on direct measures that overcomes some limitations of previous studies. We apply this new metrics to a survey of manufacturing firms in Russia to identify the economic effects associated with the lack of property protection in a transition economy. Our analysis supports the view that there is a close relationship between institutions, property rights and economic growth. Our findings confirm that redistributive risks provide a depressing effect on investment and innovative activity of manufacturing enterprises and potentially result in a huge loss in efficiency and economic growth, which in other institutional settings could have been avoided.