Tagaš in der russischen historischen Lexikographie und Etymologie
The article is dedicated to the loanword tagash as attested in Russian historical lexicography and etymology, and its paronimical attraction with the Turkic word tugash. The open access to the text cannot be provided due to copyright restrictions.
This paper sets out to review current approaches to world Englishes from a range of perspectives, from English studies to sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, lexicography, ‘popularizers’ and critical linguistics. It then proceeds to consider current debates on English worldwide and world Englishes, noting the recent criticisms of the world Englishes approach from a rhetoric of a critical linguistics ironically at odds with the realities of many educational settings.
The article analyzes l-forms without an auxiliary with a meaning of a pre-past action. Such l-participles are usually regarded as perfect forms used in pluperfect contexts. However, it will be shown that apparently we deal with the rise of a specialized for expressing the grammatical meaning of result, for which the correlation with time (present or past) was irrelevant. This interpretation is confirmed with the material of Modern Russian dialects with -shi / -vshi perfect and pluperfect, where the -shi / -vshi form used without the auxiliary in the past tense can mean the result pertaining not only to the present, but also to the past.
The meaning of the Greek hapax legomenon "λιμβίς" has been specified with the help of its Church Slavonic translation "grivьna" (necklace).
The paper continues research into words denoting everyday life objects in the Russian language. This research is conducted for developing a new encyclopedic thesaurus of Russian everyday life terminology. Working on this project brings up linguistic material which leads to discovering new trends and phenomena not covered by the existing dictionaries. We discuss derivation models which gain polularity: clipped forms (komp < komp’juter ‘computer’, nout < noutbuk ‘notebook computer’, vel < velosiped ‘bicycle’, mot<motocikl ‘motorbike’), competing masculine and feminine con- tracted nouns derived from adjectival noun phrases (mobil’nik (m.) / mo- bilka (f.) < mobil’nyj telefon (m.) ‘mobile phone’, zarjadnik (m.) / zarjadka (f.) < zarjadnoe ustrojstvo (n.) ‘AC charger’), hybrid compounds (plat’e- sviter ‘sweater dress’, jubka-brjuki ‘skirt pants’, shapkosharf ‘scarf hat’, vilkolozhka ‘spork, foon’). These words vary in spelling and syntactic behav- iour. We describe a newly formed series of words denoted multifunctional objects: mfushkaZ< MFU < mnogofunkcional’noe ustrojstvo ‘MFD, multi- function device’, mul’titul ‘multitool’, centr ‘unit, set’. Explaining the need to compose frequency lists of word meanings rather than just words, we of- fer a technique for gathering such lists and provide a sample produced from our own data. We also analyze existing dictionaries and perform various experiments to study the changes in word meanings and their comparative importance for speakers. We believe that, apart from the practical usage for our lexicographic project, our results might prove interesting for research in the evolution of the Russian lexical system.
The article presents in chronological order the replenishment of Russian lexicography with the dictionaries of jargon at the end of the 20th century – the beginning of the 21th century. The author analyses the most famous dictionaries of general jargon for the purpose of finding words and word combinations belonging to the youth sociolect. As exemplified by concrete dictionary entries, the article shows the advantages of each lexicographic source described and specifies their role in the analysis of the youth jargon.
The name of the founder of the Polish royal dynasty first appears in a Latin source as Past. There is no earlier polish evidence of its pronunciation. Historically it was read as Piast and considered to be derived from the continuant of Proto-Slavic *pěstъ ‘pestle’. However, Polish did not preserve this word, having stępor for ‘pestle’ and piasta for ‘axis’. H. Popowska-Taborska suggested that Piast derives from piastun ‘mentor’ pointing out the semantic grounds for such reconstruction. But absence of *piast meaning ‘mentor’ in Polish and an unusual word-building model prevented the scholar from accepting this model. Surprisingly, Russian dialectal data provide evidence for it. Old-rus. пестъ ‘a little child’ and rus. dial. пе́ста ‘an affectionate child’ demonstrate the objects of the action named in proto-slavic *pěstovati. The nomen agentis is *pěstunъ along with other non-object nouns: пест ‘bear’ and ‘ram’. Пест as ‘bear’ derives from пестун ‘a one-year-old bear cub’, semantics being close to ‘mentor’, as the eldest cub looks after the little ones. Пест ‘bear’ is a product of semantic generalisation accompanied by truncation.This is crucial for etymologisation of пест ‘ram-leader in herd’, as it is said to lead the herd to pastures without a shepherd. Bearing in mind the possibility of back formation and the semantics of leadership, it is likely that пест derives from пестун.The polish name Piast is likely to have undergone similar processes, though evidence from polish dialects or scripts is still desirable to be found.