Опыт монтажа (анимации) метафор смысла
The paper is an attempt to demonstrate that theatrical metaphor plays a paradigmatic role in the philosophy of Schelling, from the very beginning up to the latest versions of his metaphysics. The image of theatrical play serves, in Schelling, as the main pattern for the conceptualization of every process in which freedom and necessity are mediated through each other – of thinking as such, of the World history as a whole, of the very genesis of the world, and of the history of the human consciousness.
In this chapter, I argue that the Durkheimian theory of the sacred is a crucial yet not fully recognized resource for cognitive sociology. It contains not only a theory of culture (which is acknowledged in contemporary sociology), but also a vision of culture-cognition relations. Thus, Durkheimian cultural sociology allows us to understand the crucial role the sacred/profane opposition plays in structuring culture, perception and thought. Based on a number of theories, I also show how another opposition – between the pure and impure modes of the sacred, allows us to explain dynamic features of the sacred and eventually provides a basic model of social change. While explicating this vision and resultant opportunities for sociological analysis I also criticize ‘cognition apart from culture’ approaches established within cognitive sociology. I argue, thus, that culture not only participates in cognition but is an intrinsic ingredient of the human mind. Culture is not a chaotic and fragmented set of elements, as some sociologists imply to a greater or lesser degree, but a system; and as such it is an inner environment for human thought and social action. This system, however, is governed not by formal logic, as some critics of the autonomy of culture presuppose, but by concrete configurations of emotionally-charged categories, created and re-created in social interactions.
The present paper tackles the question of smell semantics and semiotics in the context of intimate communication of sexes. The authors analyze the linguistic representation of different characteristics of woman's artificial smell and identify specific features of single lexemes’ use for the transmission of olfactory sensations. Analysis shows that the main ways of describing smell are:
1) hedonic odor assessment - evaluation by the "pleasant / unpleasant" criterion,
2) naming the smell-reference (riecht nach / Geruch von),
3) metaphorical transfer, especially to other sensory spheres (synesthesia), which distinguishes situationally significant signs of odor.
These language devices are used with approximately equal frequency and depend on individual olfactory preferences and on being included in a certain context. This fact is especially relevant for the study of smell representation in the intimate, often irrational reality of lovers’ communication.
When describing smell in the romantic discourse - one of lovers’ communication - the main thematic area is the nomination of a physiological impact on a partner who feels the existential necessity of perceiving the smell of the beloved woman and desire for physical affinity. This effect is verbalized by metaphors which represent women’s smell as an omnipresent peremptory aggressor pursuing the man in love, penetrating into his consciousness, owning his memories, destroying his moral foundations, manipulating his biological essence.
The smell is also often perceived as a poisonous substance that stupefies, deafens and intoxicates, emphasizing the insidious nature of the female smell, which acts on the invisible "front" secretly as a hidden saboteur.
An important means of describing female artificial smell in romantic discourse is the sensory-emotional synesthesia that represents the smell as a thirst quencher or a veil enveloping the beloved person with an invisible cloud. The smell of a beloved woman is delicious and sweet, gentle and sensual; its assessment takes the entire positive scale from "good" to "divine".
The symbolic component of woman's smell is largely determined by her axiological perception, represented by evaluative adjectives that characterize the behavior, the way of life of a woman, and evaluate her as a whole. Adjectives are, in addition, a means of verbal presentation of woman’s gender identity with an emphasis on the importance of self-presentation, "adornment" with pleasant smells.
In conclusion, the authors give a textual representation of the cognitive model of the female artificial smell, which connects all linguistic facts described above into a single logically connected scenario. This model demonstrates the scope and the internal semantic content of the subject area.
The article presents a comparative study of the metaphorical representation of the concept GROWTH in Russian and English academic discourse in economics. Academic discourse in economics is defined as a variety of verbalized human actions, and includes written texts produced by professionals and intended for other professionals with the same or different expertise. There proves to be interdependence between conceptualization of special knowledge in discourse and metaphorization of discourse.
The present article aims to reveal the universal and divergent aspects of metaphor models of the concept GROWTH and to compare and contrast metaphor models of this concept in Russian and English academic texts on macroeconomics. To obtain a deeper insight into the cognitive mechanism of academic discourse in which professional communication may vary in the terms of professional competence, the author focuses only on the academic texts produced by professionals and intended for learners with a different expertise. Taking into account the specificity of economics as a field of knowledge and cultural differences, the author assumes that metaphor models of economic concepts reflect cultural premises of special knowledge conceptualization. The task is approached through a comprehensive analysis of conceptual metaphor models based on Metaphor Identification Procedure VU University Amsterdam (MIPVU).
Initially, the author explores metaphorical units in contexts which contain the lexeme ‘growth’ in Russian and English texts. In order to establish the contextual meaning, the author applies a practical and systematic method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse that addresses the way that the two conceptual structures (Source Domain and Target Domain) correspond. Then, by using the method of metaphoric modeling based on taxonomic categorization, the author builds a metaphoric model. Finally, she compares the metaphorical representation of the concept GROWTH in Russian and English academic economic discourse.
Findings highlight the areas of commonality as well as divergence in the cultural terms represented in conceptual metaphors of the concept GROWTH in Russian and English academic economic discourse. The main differences in the scope of the source analysis are quantitative rather than qualitative. The most representative metaphor model in the Russian discourse is the Human Being metaphor followed by Human Activity, whereas in the English discourse this is Human Being followed by Mechanism. The most detailed metaphor model of Human Activity representing the concept GROWTH is comprised of two similar models in both discourses such as the metaphors of Behavior and Struggle. However, the concept GROWTH in the Russian discourse is also represented through the Professional Activity metaphor, whereas its representation in the English discourse is through the Power metaphor, the Game metaphor and the Theater metaphor.
The paper addresses metaphor as a cognitive-semantic device which is able to reveal intuitive mechanisms of the thinking process, thus filling the gaps in the sphere of logically objective human knowledge and opening the possibility to describe abstract concepts of the human mind in terms. This paper substantiates the principal possibility of conceptual modeling of the metaphorization process and describes its baseline algorithm, identifies complex metaphors and establishes the cognitive semantic features of their functioning. The main conclusion of the reasoning confirms the hypothesis that different image schemes have different strength of heuristic potential, which determines the fullness of metaphorical descriptions of concepts.