Опыт монтажа (анимации) метафор смысла
The paper examines the properties of heavy as a perceptual concept, based on evidence from 11 languages. We demonstrate that the semantics of this concept is heterogeneous; lexemes of this field can be used in situations of at least three types: Lifting, Shifting and Weighing. These situations are either lexicalised as separate words or they converge in a single lexeme in various combinations following certain strategies. We also argue that different metaphorical extensions correspond to different situation types; this allows us to use analysis of metaphoric shifts as an additional instrument to establish the semantic structure of direct meanings.
Атмосфера городских пространств в последнии десятилетия все более активно изучается представителями различных областей знания. Это связано как с вниманием к человеку, его эмоциям и переживаниям, так и с необходимостью применения рассматриваемого концепта в реальной жизни: планировании городских и общественных пространств, выстраивании маркетинговой стратегии туристических дестинаций, проведении мега-событий и т.д. Несмотря на то что феномен атмосферы крайне востребован, поскольку позволяет комплексно смотреть на городское пространство с различных исследовательских позиций, тем не менее это явление до сих пор не было четко определено, концептуализировано и операционализировано. Отсутствие концептуального аппарата и релевантного языка описания исследуемого феномена ведет к невозможности эффективного измерения городского пространства и производимых в нем социальных отношений, что затрудняет работу как социальных исследователей, так и специалистов-практиков. Автор предпринимает попытку создания языка для описания феномена городской атмосферы. В основе работы лежит анализ понятия атмосферы и его оттенков, поиск и обоснование его метафоры, а также категорий, применимых для создания языка описания исследуемого явления. В результате для описания городской атмосферы предложено использовать понятия ламинарности и турбулентности, заимствованные из естественных наук. В качестве категорий описания используются наработки представителей феноменологического и неомарксистского подходов и рассматриваются такие понятия, как городские ритмы, аффекты, социальный и политический контексты города, эмоции, инфраструктурный рельеф, аутентичность и эстетизация городского пространства.
Czarniawska’s book may seem to be quite a challenge for several reasons: the author's trademark “crossing genre boundaries” requires a reader to pay attention and stay confident; the outward simplicity of narrating organizational change stands on sophisticated philosophical, sociological, and philological grounds; and the language is eclectic but brilliantly puts together new empirically grounded and older, well-known theoretical concepts. Czarniawska tells a story of the Swedish public sector’s reorganization with the accuracy of an academic and the eloquence of a narrator—institutions become apparent in their activities, as they are based on action, which is depicted by the coined term action nets. In a sense, the reader should be attentive and “follow the words”. Though imagination is also a precondition, as the light but solid and convincing narrative constructions are open to further “translation” (in a hermeneutic and actor-network sense).
Narrative knowledge and its metaphors make it much more productive for work with essential organizational paradoxes. Czarniawska points out that a narrative approach can help new institutionalism reflect on its own limitations and better understand institutional building. With a focus on verbal and written communication as well as employees’ stories, we can trace how institutionalized thought structures, which are responsible for the repertoire of possible actions and shared perceptions among organization participants, are formed.
The book is well written and pleasant for thoughtful reading in both its theoretical and empirical parts. The stories and serials of the Swedish public sector raise important questions of company-ization, technologyization, and rethinking organizational identity. “Narrating the Organization” can also offer some interesting methodological approaches and explanations for why and how stories “work” due to the modern trend of storytelling. The author openly invites her audience into a dialogue and joint-narrative creativity; the only task of the reader is merely to open the book.
The article presents the comparative study of the metaphorical representation of concept GROWTH in Russian and English academic discourse in economics.Academic discourse in economics is defined as variety of verbalized human actions, involving writing articles, books, abstracts, etc., and including written texts produced by professionals and intended for other professionals with the same or different expertise, for semi-professionals, i.e. learners, or for non-professionals. This definition is in accord with special discourseand language for transferring knowledge of disciplinary nature. It is argued that there are some universal characteristics of economics as a field of knowledge, nevertheless most research into economic discourse points to the fact that the way how special knowledge is represented in the economic discourse differs from that in other discourses and in other languages.
There proves to be interdependence between conceptualization of special knowledge in discourse and metaphorization of discourse. In cognitive linguistics, metaphor is considered to be a universal mental mechanism that engages previously acquired knowledge. In line with the conceptual theory of metaphor (Lakoff, Johnson), a conceptual metaphor is referred to a unified cognitive structure of two conceptual domains – source-domain and target-domain, which connects mental representations with a sensual and experimental basis formed under the influence of people’s previous experience and their cultural background.
The research focus is to reveal the universal and divergent aspects of metaphor models of concept GROWTH and to compare and contrast metaphor models of this concept in Russian and English academic texts on macroeconomics. Taking into account the specificity of economics as a field of knowledge and cultural differences, we assume that metaphor models of economic concepts reflect cultural premises of special knowledge conceptualization.To obtain a deeper insight into cognitive mechanism of the academic discourse in which professional communication may vary in the terms of professional competence, we focus only on the academic texts produced by professionals and intended for learners with a different expertise. The task is approached through a comprehensive analysis of conceptual metaphor models based on Metaphor Identification Procedure VU University Amsterdam (MIPVU).
Findings highlight the areas of commonality as well as divergence in the cultural terms represented in conceptual metaphors of the concept GROWTH in Russian and English academic economic discourse. The main differences in the scope of the source analysis are quantitative rather than qualitative. The most representative metaphor model in the Russian discourse is Human being metaphor followed by Human Activity, whereas in the English discourse this is Human Being followed by Mechanism. The most detailed metaphor model of Human Activity representing concept GROWTH is comprised of two similar models in both discourses such as the metaphors of Behaviour and Struggle. However, the concept GROWTH in the Russian discourse is also represented through Professional activity metaphor, whereas its representation in the English discourse is through Power metaphor, Game metaphor and Theatre metaphor.
A limitation of the study was the small sample of the analysis restricted to the academic texts produced by professionals and intended for semi-professionals. For this reason, the findings cannot be generalized. However, this restriction makes it possible to focus on one main aspect of the analysis, that is cultural, on the one hand, and proceed with analyzing other texts of a diverse academic discourse, on the other hand.