Солидарность или правила, Дюркгейм или Хайек? О двух формах социальной интеграции
This paper explores the essential aspects of the dramatic history of the idea of solidarity in social sciences, as well as the conclusions and lessons that ought to be derived from this history. This is particularly important now because today the idea of solidarity is returning into scientific discourse. A detailed comparative analysis of the theories by Emile Durkheim and Friedrich Hayek, concerning the interrelations of social solidarity and social rules, of particularism and universalism, is carried out. Some new or revised interpretations of the ideas of social solidarity, regulation, collective effervescence, anomie in Durkheim’s, Hayek’s and Robert Merton’s theories are given. The contemporary significance of their theoretical view points is evaluated. In conclusion, the implications of particular solidarities and “abstract rules” in contemporary world, namely in Russia, are considered.