Становление, значение и критика теории предметов Алексиуса Майнонга
This article considers the concept of Sachverhalt in the Austrian philosophical tradition of the XIX century. In particular, we are talking about the works of Bernard Bolzano, Rudolf Lotze, Julius Bergmann, Franz Brentano, Karl Stumpf, Anton Marty and Alexius Meinong. The emergence of the concept of Sachverhalt, or the state of things in extensive philosophical discussions is connected with the works of L. Wittgenstein and phenomenologist Adolf Reinach. Reinach criticized previous theories of judgment. He wrote that they were built on the evaluation, affirmation or negation of a particular object. And that is a mistake. Only introduction of the concept of Sachverhalt allows us to solve a number of logical contradictions that faces the theory of judgment. We find this term in the works of Lotze and Stumpf, but what is its position in their theories? Does it solve the problems that mentions Reinach? Therefore, in this study, I am going to answer the question of how fair is Reinach's criticism. Also I’m going to analyse the various theories of judgment in Austrian philosophy to determine if it is possible to speak of Sachverhalt as a single entity connecting in the concepts of all authors in the Austrian tradition.
This article considers the problem of defining the concept of "Austrian philosophy" in the context of the possible influence of Austrian philosophy of the XIX century on the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein. From Haller&Neurath’s point of view the Austrian philosophical tradition can be represented as a single chain of mutual influences. In particular, we can trace continuity, find common features in the philosophy of the Brentano school and philosophy of the Vienna Circle. But here is the question. Should Ludwig Wittgenstein also be included in this tradition? By responding to this question, we can better understand the boundaries of this tradition. But in case we include Wittgenstein in this tradition, then he will be in one tradition with Alexius Meinong, who is often called Wittgenstein's opponent in logic, semantics and philosophical psychology. Therefore, our task is to find out whether these theories are really so different. May be we can find common features or signs of the influence of one theory on another. The main clue in this case is the concept of "Sachverhalt" or "state of affairs", which Wittgenstein used in "Tractatus" and which is quite comparable in meaning with the Meinong’s concept of "objektiv".