Логический вывод в теории возможностей, обоснованный в рамках теории неточных вероятностей
This paper devoted to Russian scientist Alexander Schukarev and his work on logical machine. Historically, this work may be divided on two periods – before and after Russian October revolution. We try to understand and explain why Schukarev's activity in this field was ceased and his logical machine was forgotten for the long time.
This monograph contains the translations of two chapters ("Pratyakṣa-lakṣaṇa-parīkṣā" and "Anumāna- parīkṣā") and the studies on the Buddhist epistemology and logic as developed in the compendium of the great Buddhist scholar Śāntarakṣita "Tattvasaṃgraha" ("Collection of categories") and in the commentary "Pañjikā" of Kamalaśīla (both lived in VIII AD). Because Buddhists base their theory through the refutation of competing theories of all major systems, the text contains valuable information on the history of not only Buddhist, but all Indian epistemology and logic.
Introduction, chapters 1 and 3 were written by N. Kanaeva, chapter 2 - by V. Lysenco.
The book is adressed to historians of Philosophy and to the specialists in epistemology and cognitive sciences.
This paper gives a way of analyzing decisions in the case of unknown utility function, or more precisely, when we know only a linear order on an income space. It is shown that in this situation, decisions and corresponding probability measures are partially ordered, and this order is identical to the inclusion relation of comonotone fuzzy sets. It enables us to use inclusion indices of fuzzy sets to analyze the comparability of decisions. To do this, we introduce an inclusion index having properties, which are close to ones of the classical expected utility.
The centuries-old development of logical machines is very interesting page of both computer technology and logic history. In fact, logical machines cannot be called the ancestors of modern computers but our analysis allows us to state for surely that these devices were the very first predecessors of contemporary intellectual informational technologies. In this article we give the review of logical machines built before the beginning of computer era. In contrast to the classic book of Martin Gardner «Logic machines and diagrams» (1958) our paper includes descriptions of all known logical machines. Some of them (e.g. devices of Alfred Smee) Gardner described only briefly and some («virtual» logical machine of Jonathan Swift, Round Demonstrator of Earl Stanhope, machines intellectueles of Semion Korsakov, logical machines of Pavel Khruschev and Aleksandr Schukarev) did not mention at all.