Актуален ли трансцендентализм сегодня? Трансцендентальная философия как теория науки
This paper is devoted to Kant’s transcendental philosophy as a special type of philosophy (philosophizing), or the transcendental paradigm. For this purpose we introduce new methodological concepts as the transcendental shift, perspective and paradigm. The basis for our interpretation of transcendentalism is cognitive-semantic reading of the Critics and the theory of "two aspects". Transcendentalism is defined as a new «experimental» (Erfahrung) metaphysics and «transcendental» — as the intermedia domain (between the immanent and the transcendent) of reality, as the "instrumental" part of our cognition (consciousness).
Proceedings of the 12. International Kant Congress Nature and Freedom” (Vienna, 9/21/2015–9/25/2015). Ed. Violetta L. Waibel and Margit Ruffing. Berlin 2016.
The research deals with transformation of the subject matter of Husserl's phenomenology in Martin Heidegger's philosophy. The research explores why even with remarkably similar philosophic opinions shared by Husserl and Heidegger the latter had to give up his position of a teacher and to express differently the subject matter of the phenomenology. While answering this question, two approaches are undertaken. The first one deals with the phenomenology as transcendent philosophy: the research underlines that transcendental ego is a complicated matter, which eventually revealed itself as ultimate. The second approach calls for an entire change of the phenomenology. This approach embodies the fact that a taking-out-of-the-context method cannot be applicable for all areas of reality. Thus, the dimensions of reality that practical aspects deal with, including taking out of the context, are basically inaccessible for being taken out of the context. This is why the demand for Being comes to be essential. As a result of this demand, Husserl's phenomenology loses its position for, from now on, first, Being itself takes the place of transcendental I; second, intentionality appears to be an existential attitude; third, phenomenology as well as the truth gets a new meaning; forth, a concept of transcendental philosophy modifies substantially. Thus, the research explains the point that in passing over the basic settings of Husserl's philosophy it was crucial that Heidegger realized a priority role Being itself plays as regards to any means of Being, including pure consciousness.
Having considered in the context of educational subject, Heidegger's existential analytics of Dasein indicates that the epistemological issue of explanation is changing to the existential issue of understanding in Heidegger's ontology. Therefore Heidegger considers «education» in the sense of existential relation as the ability of Dasein to reach own being in its genuineness and entirety, which Dasein always anticipates in understanding. On this basis Heidegger defines education as transcending being, which he names «openness», similarly to Scheler.
In the paper we have attempted to consider Kant’s transcendental philosophy as a special type of philosophizing and the new transcendental paradigm, which differs from both the ‘object’ metaphysics of Antiquity and ‘subject’ metaphysics of the Modern Age (transcendent — transcendental — immanent metaphysics). For this purpose we shall introduce the methodological terms ‘transcendental shift’ and ‘transcendental perspective’. The basis for such representation of transcendentalism is the cognitive and semantic reading of the Critique and theory of ‘two aspects’. While in classical metaphysics cognition is interpreted as a relation between empirical subject and object, in transcendental metaphysics (perspective) ‘possible experience’ (Erfahrung) shall be understood as a relation between ‘consciousness generally’ (transcendental subject) and ‘thing-in-general’ (transcendental object). In this, Kant’s transcendentalism, in contrast to classical contemplative metaphysics. acts as an ‘experimental’ metaphysics and the transcendentality is defined as the intermediate between the immanent and transcendent ontological area (as a “instrumental” component of our cognition)